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Kants political and legal theory is now thought to be one of the most important contributions to the theory of modern constitutionalism. The paper is an attempt to distil the fundamental principles of constitutional law as implemented in modern constitutional review from the writings of Kant. It examines the idea of the constitution as a social contract and its relation to popular sovereignty. Second, the principles of “republican constitution”-liberty, equality and independence (autonomy)-follow. These principles condense the essence of what we now call fundamental constitutional rights. Third, the transcendental maxim of legislation, that is, the publicity is analysed; the principle of the publicity of legislation is (under various names like equality, public reasoning and discussion, freedom of speech) fundamental for modern constitutionalism (or neo-constitutionalism). Constitutional courts are organs of the “public use of reason” so important for Kant and revived recently by Rawls. The last section is a discussion of the relationship of morality and constitutional government. Kant regarded the law as a coercive order a precondition for moral autonomy but he did not qualifi ed constitutional principles “moral”. Thus, the Kantian interpretation of constitutionalism does not support the moral reading or interpretation of the constitution; instead, the principles of the “lawful” constitution are based (like the maxims of morality) on practical reason.

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(that is, to Confess). I call this a Kantian equilibrium , for it implements the idea “take those actions that you would will be universalized,” Kant's categorical imperative ( Paton 1971 ). I defer until later a discussion of the circumstances under

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. 21 13 30 Kant, S., Kafkafi, U. (2001a): Potassium and abiotic stresses in plants. In: International Symposium on Importance of Potassium in Nutrient Management

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Thermal and physico-chemical studies on binary organic eutectic systems

4-Aminoacetophenone with benzoin and 4-nitrophenol

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Shiva Kant
,
U. S. Rai
, and
R. N. Rai

. Reddi , RSB , Kant , Shiva , Rai , US , Rai , RN . 2009 . Crystallization, thermal, phase diagram and microstructural studies of organic analog of metal–non metal monotectic alloy: 4-bromochlorobenzene–succinonitrile . J Cryst Growth . 312

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Studia Slavica
Author:
Сергей Шульц

Аполлон Григорьев и Бахтин затрагивали достаточно разные вопросы творчества Достоевского, но корреляция между их работами очевидна на уровне их металогики, их философии, их культур-философских оснований. Григорьев, вместе с Достоевским, находился у истоков почвенничества, хотя отзывы Григорьева о творчестве Достоевского эпизодичны и довольно инвективны. Григорьев, в основном, отказывал Достоевскому в том, что его искусство соответствует «правде жизни». Но и первый вариант книги Бахтина о Достоевском не был апологетическим.

Григорьев и Бахтин реализуют свою философию через эстетику (философию искусства). Искус-ство, согласно Григорьеву, имеет истоки в самой жизни, а жизнь через искусство реализует себя и сама себя понимает; поэтому критик – также «художник». Бахтин также исходит из принципа корреляции искусства и жизни, выводя отсюда свое понятие «творческий хронотоп». У Григорьева, Бахтина, Достоевского дело идет об онтологии искусства, как и об искусстве онтологии. Искусство онтологии подразумевает самую широкую эстетизацию жизни: ее вдвижение в горизонт искусства. Данная установка – предмодернистская и модернистская.

В генезисе понятия «органическая критика» отозвались уроки Канта как автора трех философ-ских «Критик». Идеи Канта были значимы также для Достоевского и Бахтина. Григорьева могло за-интересовать философское измерение, приданное Кантом понятию «критика». Поэтому «органиче-ская критика» относится преимущественно к философии, поднимая объемный перечень вопросов, превышающих собственно эстетические.

Согласно Бахтину, полифония Достоевского заключается в том, что автор выступает «медиумом», «пропускающим» через себя различные идеи («голоса» персонажей, различные «точки зрения» и т. п.) Автор-медиум «проводит» «через себя» и «из себя» массу различных идей без сущностного отвержения какой-либо из них. «Автор-медиум» пытается говорить от лица жизни, но также и даже «вместо жизни», что ведет к логической и смысловой подмене «мира» – «картиной мира». Отвер-жение сущностное вовсе не означает отсутствия у автора отвержения формального, т. е. просто констатированного. Однако сущностное неотвержение означает гораздо больше, чем то или иное формальное отвержение. Жизнь, историческое бытие в таком случае оказывается для Достоевского практически «хаосом».

В развитие идей Бахтина следует, что при внедрении в свой художественный мир карнавального начала Достоевский утверждает «связку» чувствительность / физиологизм. Ее истоки – в сентимен-тализме XVIII в. Данная «связка» находит религиозную проекцию в феномене юродства. Поэтому итоговой бахтинской трактовкой Достоевского (1963) движет пафос «оправдания» писателя, полно-та художественного мира которого в главном реализована через религиозно трактованную Досто-евским «картину мира» (все-таки «картину мира», но не сам «мир»).

Apollon Grigoriev and Bakhtin touched upon quite different issues of Dostoevsky’s work but the correlation between their works is obvious at the level of their metalogic, their philosophy, and their cultural-philosophical foundations. Grigoriev, together with Dostoevsky, was at the origins of “pochvennichestvo” (a grassroots movement), although Grigoriev’s comments on Dostoevsky’s work are episodic and rather injective. Grigoriev basically denied Dostoevsky that his art corresponded to the “truth of life”. But even the first version of Bakhtin’s book about Dostoevsky was not apologetic.

Grigoriev and Bakhtin realize their philosophy through aesthetics (philosophy of art). Art, according to Grigoriev, has its origins in life itself, and life through art realizes itself and understands itself; therefore the critic is also an “artist”. Bakhtin also proceeds from the principle of correlation between art and life, deriving from this his concept of “creative chronotope”. Grigoriev, Bakhtin, and Dostoevsky deal with the ontology of art as well as the art of ontology. The art of ontology implies the broadest aestheticization of life: its movement into the horizon of art. This attitude is pre-modern and modern.

In the genesis of the concept of “organic criticism”, the lessons of Kant as the author of three philosophical “Critics” could be echoed. Kant’s ideas were also significant for Dostoevsky and Bakhtin. Grigoriev might have been interested in the philosophical dimension that Kant gave to the concept of “criticism”. Therefore, “organic criticism” refers primarily to philosophy, raising a voluminous list of issues that exceed the aesthetic ones themselves.

According to Bakhtin, Dostoevsky’s polyphony consists in the fact that the author acts as a “medium”, “passing” various ideas through himself (“voices” of characters, different “points of view”, etc.). The author- medium “conducts” “through himself” and “out of myself” a lot of different ideas without the essential rejection of any of them. The “author-medium” tries to speak on behalf of life but also even “instead of life”, which leads to a logical and semantic substitution of “the world” – “an image of the world”. Essential rejection does not at all mean that the author has no formal rejection, i.e. just stated. Essential non-rejection, however, means much more than any formal rejection. Life, historical being in this case turns out to be practically “chaos” for Dostoevsky.

In the development of Bakhtin’s ideas, it follows that, when introducing carnivalization into his artistic world, Dostoevsky affirms a “link” of sensitivity / physiology. The origins of this “link” are in the sentimentalism of the 18th century. This “link” finds a religious projection in the phenomenon of “yurodstvo” (foolishness). Therefore, Bakhtin’s final interpretation of Dostoevsky (1963) is driven by the pathos of the “justification” of the writer, whose integrity of the artistic world is mainly realized through the religious “image of the world” (aft er all, the “image of the world” and not the “world” itself).

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Everyone will probably agree that no great musician has been as frequently accused of bad taste as Liszt. And everyone will probably also agree that these accusations have had no effect on his stature as a great musician, even among the accusers. So what is bad taste, then, if it is so easily separable from artistic stature? It is a concept that has been poorly historicized or contextualized, if at all. This paper is an attempt to start the process, using Liszt as bellwether.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Cs. N. Drén
,
A. Kant
,
D. J. Van Roozelaar
,
L. Hartog
,
М. H. M. Noteborn
, and
G. Koch

, 679 – 693 . Drén , Cs. N. , Koch , G. , Kant , A. , Verschueren , C. A. J. , van der Eb , A. J. and Noteborn , M. H. M. ( 1994 ): A hot start PCR for the laboratory

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Thermal decomposition of mono pyridine N-oxide complexe; of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) propionates and mono quinoline N-oxide complex of copper(II) ben zoate has been studied by TG and DTA techniques. These dimeric complexes are stable upto 350–380 K and decompose in two stages: (i) successive elimination of the two ligand molecules (mostly endothermic); and (ii) decomposition of the resulting anhydrous metal(II) carboxylates by an exothermic multistep process in air.

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In the sub-tropical regions of India, the 1st to 3rd week of November is the optimum time for sowing wheat. A delay in sowing due to various factors causes a substantial yield reduction. Seeds of four wheat varieties (Sonak, UP 2338, Raj 3765 and PBW 343) were subjected to seed priming treatments involving water, salts, growth regulator and the sowing of sprouted seed under late-sown conditions during the winter seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000. The sowing of sprouted seeds resulted in significantly more rapid emergence of seedlings, accompanied by higher grain and straw yields. Seeds primed with IAA, KCl, water, ZnSO4 and Na2SO4 followed in this order. The lowest seedling emergence and grain yield were obtained for unprimed seeds. Seedling emergence was higher in the variety Sonak, while Raj 3765 and UP 2338 had higher leaf water, osmotic and turgor potentials during the 1998-99 season. The variety PBW 343 produced significantly higher grain and straw yields in the 1999-2000 season.

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North West Himalaya Region of India faces serious shortage of green fodder up to 60 percent, particularly in winter months of November to March. Possibility of augmenting green fodder availability from cultivated lands, which is very limited (10% of geographical area) is explored by cultivation of dual purpose wheat, providing green fodder a part from grain production. Influence of wheat variation and their cutting schedule on fodder and grain yield were studied. Selected wheat varieties included VL Gehun 829, VL Gehun 616 and advance lines of VL 818 and VL 840, respectively. Significantly higher green fodder yield (69.32 q/ha) was obtained from VL 818 than under VL Gehun 616 and VL Gehun 829, while it was at per with fodder yield of VL 840. Cutting of green fodder scheduled at 70 and 85 DAS resulted no significant difference in yield. However, it showed the possibility of extended availability of green fodder without affecting the production the grain and straw yield obtained under VL Gehun 829 (60.05 q and 121.5 q/ha, respectively) were statistically superior to VL Gehun 616 and VL 818 and at par with VL 840. Harvest of green fodder affected grain yield of wheat up to 7% through it was not statistically significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that among the different cultivar VL Gehun 829 and VL 840 are the most suitable for dual purpose and can be cut after 70 and 85 DAS for green fodder as both stage of cut produced at par green fodder, grain and straw yields, thereby ensuring fodder and food security in the region.

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