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Throughout their existence, Kievan Rus’ and the Old-Russian Principalities often had to face the incursions of their nomadic neighbours. Their relationship was characterised by many contradictions but down to the appearance of the Mongols no nomadic tribe or confederation meant a real menace for the political independence of Rus’ and the Old-Russian Principalities. The present study is giving an analysis and evaluation of the ambivalent attitude of Old-Russian chronicles towards their nomadic foes. As the relationships between the different Old-Russian Principalities and the nomadic tribes were of various character, the standpoints of the chroniclers widely differ. For the early period one can gather information from the Povest’ Vremennyh Let, for the later period the regional chronicle-writing, e.g. the Galician-Volhynian or Vladimir-Suzdalian chronicles, provide material. The summary of the conclusions drawn from these data is that there is a special duality in the chronicles as far as the evaluation of the steppe nomads is concerned. On the one hand, they have a negative approach based on the Christian-non-Christian antagonism, on the other, an attitude of tolerance can also be observed. The reason for the latter aspect lies in the interests of the courts of the princes that often entered into alliance with different groups of the nomads.

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Kievan Rus ’. Еd. by Simon Franklin. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature. English Translations 5.) Cambridge, Mass., 1991. Franklin 1992 = Франклин Саймон: О «философах» и «философии» в Киевской Руси

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Medii Aevi 6 5 29 Golden, P. B. (1991): Aspects of the Nomadic Factor in the Economic Development of Kievan Rus'. In

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The author of this paper examines what position the most prominent 12th-century Russian ecclesiastic writer and orator, the author of numerous festal speeches and parables, Cyril of Turov takes up on and what aesthetic value he attributes to ecclesiastic feasts. In the paper, it is also studied why he considers it important and “soul-saving” to read and to know sacred books while he also speaks of the psychology of reading.

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The present article outlines the history of the prohibition, in the medieval Slavonic tradition, which forbade the Orthodox believers to contract marriages with the “Latins”. The article traces the main cases of the appearance of this prohibition in the Slavonic sources, primarily canon and civil law codes, starting from the eleventh century in Kievan Rus' to the sixteenth century in the Balkans. The form of the prohibition as found in the Syntagma of Matthew Blastares and related legal codes (legislationof Stefan Dušan and the Epitimian Nomocanon) is discussed in especial detail. The Slavonic translation of Blastares' Syntagma was the main channel through which the opinion of Theodore Balsamon on marriages with Latins entered the legal corpus of the Orthodox Slavs. In the texts analysed it was recommended that the Latins be treated as a heterodox group of a particular nature.

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through the mediation of the Kievan Rus, or, given the frequency of the finds, that the raw material had been mined locally in the Kaczawskie Mountains. However, she conceded that the latter option found little support either among archaeologists or

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