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1820 Ernyey, József (1921) ’Mátyás király a cseh néphagyományban’ (King Matthias in Czech folk traditions), Ethnographia Vol. 32, 92

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: Soltész Zoltánné: A Mátyás Graduale [Review on Soltész Zoltánné: The Gradual of King Matthias] , Magyar Könyvszemle 97 . 1981 . 253 – 255 . Csapodi – Csapodiné Gárdonyi 1976

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Summary

The paper analyses the textual and visual representations of King Matthias Corvinus in the light of Antique physiognomical theories. I intend to focus mainly on those descriptions and portraits which were influenced by the lion's physiognomy. The last chapter deals also with the portraits of Matthias, but with the Attila-faun-like images. The Antique theories of physiognomy have contributed to a more exact interpretation of his images and the physiognomical comparison has resulted a more shaded picture about his iconography, even in the case of the Attila-faun-type portraits where we cannot study such clear-cut intentions. Due to the research we can place plausibly the leonine images of King Matthias among the Renaissance state-portraits after having taken into consideration the king's political intentions as well. The examination of the sources has resulted that the role of Galeotto Marzio must have been crucial in mediating the physiognomical theories towards the Buda court. I have also demonstrated that in his work physiognomy appears as an element of the theoriesrelated to good governance.

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This study deals with Celtis’ practice of rewriting and recontextualizing his own poetry. His poem To the literary odality of Hungarians (Ad sodalitatem litterariam Ungarorum, Odes II.2), addressed to a Hungarian ‘coetus’ (not a ‘sodalitas’) was first published in 1492. Through a detailed analysis of the poem, I claim that this ode was not directed to an academic circle of friends in Buda, but rather to the ‘bursa Hungarorum’ at the University of Cracow. As Celtis took up teaching in Ingolstadt in the spring of 1492, he published the Epitoma, which contained his course material on rhetoric from Cracow, and contained five poems, including this poem, which he composed while still in Poland. Consequently, it cannot be regarded as a proof of the continuity of academic thought between the Neo-platonic circles of King Matthias (1485-1490) and the Vienna-centered Sodalitas Danubiana of 1497. Around 1500, to please his Hungarian aristocratic friends in the Sodalitas Danubiana, he revised the same poem in Vienna and added it to the cycle of his Odes.

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The author’s monograph published in Hungarian in 2001 was the first attempt to give an overview of the theme of King Matthias Corvinus in Slovenian folk tradition and literature. This study provides some further details on this subject, suggesting a new interpretation of traditional folk texts about King Matthias Corvinus as texts of collective memory, collective narrative and collective identity. The myth of King Matthias Corvinus as a saviour strongly condenses how this exceptional soldier and possible crusade leader, who vanquishes the unbelievers and heretics, liberated this part of Europe from barbarism and instilled in it the spirit of humanism and the Renaissance.

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The remains of the Visegrád Summer palace indicate that it followed closely upon the Italian development of all'antica villa constructions according to descriptions by Pliny the Younger. On the basis of the close relationship of the Visegrád garden to the Palazzo Venezia in Rome, the role of Giovanni Dalmata, also working for Pope Paul II, is taken into consideration in this study. The transmission to Hungary of a wide-spread type of Quattrocento fountain is also attributed to this artist, whose authorship of the Visegrád Hercules fountain is here proved by stylistic comparisons with his Roman and Dalmatian works.

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King Matthias Corvinus' is a beloved figure in the folklore of the Slav nations of the historic Hungarian kingdom. This folklore divides into two groups: in the South Slavs' folklore the genre of historical epos prevails, while in the Slovak, Rusyn and Hungarian folklore King Matthias appears first of all as a protector of the common people against their masters' self-will, as a fair and wise king. In the Rusyn folklore King Matthias and his military leader Pál Kinizsi are being nationalised. They appear as  Rusyns; the tales of King Matthias teem with local toponyms and  often reflect  real historic events and facts. In this way people unintentionally show King Matthias' great services at the legislative definition of the Rusyns' privilegies and rights, which exerted influence upon the shaping of their national identity. The theme of King Matthias' love-affairs, known in the Slovak folklore, does not exist in the Rusyn tradition. Thus, in particular the Rusyns' folklore stands closest to that of Hungarians. In comparison with the Hungarian folklore one can point to its greater severity and elements of sorcery and superstitions, typical in general of the world view of the Rusyn common people.

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The article tries to present the history of the formation of the first Hungarian printed missal, the Missale to usum dominorum ultramontanorum. First, based on the results of specific literature, it specifies the purchaser of the edition: Antal Sánkfalvi, prebendary of Vác, then ambassador in most places of King Matthias Corvinus. The second part of the study attempts to investigate the reasons for the release of the liturgical book, and try to find traces of the use of the missal. The author puts forward the hypothesis that the release of the missal results from a pure economic calculation and that the book was (also) used in the Archdiocese of Esztergom, accordingly the missal should be considered a Missale strigoniense.

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The erection of the first retable of remarkable dimension in the Leutschau Parish Church can be dated on the basis of the coats of arms of King Matthias Corvinus and of his wife, Beatrix, sculpted on its predella. As Matthias visited the city in 1474, the donation can be attributed to him, while the armory of Beatrice proves that the execution was not earlier than their marriage in 1476. An analogue to the use of royal coats of arms is given by the retable of Our Lady of the Snow in the same church, which is traditionally considered as a commemoration of the Leutschau meeting of the Dukes of the Jagiellonian Dynasty in 1494.

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Holy spirit in the library

THE FRONTISPIECE OF THE DIDYMUS CORVINA AND NEOPLATONIC THEOLOGY AT THE COURT OF KING MATTHIAS CORVINUS

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: DÁNIEL PÓCS

Summary

The Didymus-Corvina in the New York Pierpont Morgan Library was illuminated for King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary in the workshop of Gherardo and Monte di Giovanni. The analysis of both frontispiece and text of the codex proves that in the background of the redaction of the book there were the events on the 1437–39 Council of Ferrara and Florence. Its program and contents were determined by the philosophical circle of Florentine neoplatonists of the second half of the 15th century as well as by Italian humanists in the service of the Buda court. The illumination makes use of the repertory of Florentine self-repesentation for the purpose of symbolic power representation of the Hungarian ruler.

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