After the formation of the Chagatay and Jochi Uluses the local Mongol nobility was converted to Islam and assimilated by the local Kirghiz and Kipchak Turkic nomads. When these Uluses were disintegrated into smaller hordes (Özbeg, Nogay, Kazak, Kirghiz, etc.), the Turkic-speaking Muslim nobility ruled the newly-formed new nomadic states. The epic tradition of these nomads underwent fundamental changes, and the heroes of the epic songs became the historical or legendary founders of the tribes. When the Oirat Mongols and Jungars attacked their territories during in 16th–18th centuries the Buddhist Oirats became the major enemies of the Muslim Turks who called them
. But the meaning of
is broader in the epic tradition of these Turkic peoples: it can mean Non-Muslim or enemy of all kind. The present article analyses the historical and cultural background of the word
in written and oral sources.
On studying Russian national folk language, I noticed elements which have territorial characteristics due to the cultural and linguistic contacts of Russian people with their neighbours. N. S. Trubetzkoy (1927) determined and studied the Russian cultural zone, which has huge contacts with the Orient. Most of the Russian set expressions show this contact, e. g. ?????????? 'white bone' with the meaning «aristocratic, blue-blooded». Plenty of Turkish languages have lots of similar expressions. In the Tatar language there is also an expression which consists of components: ak 'white' and soyak 'bone'. It has the phonetic and structural equivalents that appear in the Bashkir, Kazakh and Kirghiz languages. According to studies the Kirghiz set expression: ak sook has given the most important information about the relation between the Turkish and Russian languages. The research has been helped by the work of Hungarian scientist Ármin Vámbéry, which comments on and clarifies the social, ethnographic background of this very complex problem. In the 19th century he wrote about the Kirghiz people, their customs and about the expression: ak szöng, as well. This phraseological collocation has many important historical and social relations with the lives of peoples in Central Asia and theVolga basin.
. R. (1999): Breaking the Orkhon Tradition: Kirghiz Adherence to the Yenisei Region after A.D. 840. JAOS 119/3, pp. 390-403.
Breaking the Orkhon Tradition: Kirghiz Adherence to the Yenisei Region after A.D. 840
) . [Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları 1165.] Ankara : Türk Dil Kurumu . Hebert , Raymond J . and Nicholas Poppe 1963 . Kirghiz Manual . [Indiana University Publications. Uralic and Altaic Series 33.] Bloomington : Curzon . Jankowski , Henryk 1992