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Az oszlopos körtemplom és az angolkert — az antikvitás vágyképe és aktualitása

Kerttörténet és művészettörténet

Colonnaded Rotunda and Landscape Garden — Ideal and Topical Aspects of Antiquity. Garden History and Art History

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Géza Galavics

Abstract

The paper explores the history of columned rotundas in European landscape gardens with emphasis on three such edifices built in Hungary in the first half of the 19th century. The theme is the temple type called peripteros in architecture history which comprises a colonnade set in a circle around a pagan shrine, modeled on the Temple of Vesta surviving in Tivoli near Rome from the 1st century BC. It appeared in the art of the early modern times as a garden edifice, first in England in the first decades of the 18th century. The need for its modern-time use arose when man turned to the legacy and nature concept of antiquity to support his political, cultural, moral and artistic revival. With its architectural forms and role in the scenery the Temple of Vesta was already an iconic building of antiquity for artists and visitors to Italy well before it was transferred to landscape gardens where it was reborn in the form of a modern artistic phenomenon, incorporated in grand landscape compositions. Garden history registers some 15–20 surviving rotundas of the kind in European landscape gardens. The paper addresses itself to the history, owners, analogies of the rotundas in Stowe, Stourhead, Downhill (GB), Ermenonville, Méréville (F), Kassel (D), Pavlovsk (RUS), Puŀawy, Arkadia (PL), Veltrusy (CZ) and three Hungarian round temples: Hőgyész, Kismarton/Eisenstadt and Alcsút. It looks at their function, interior decoration, implications of the statues as well as their relation to antiquity and to the garden art creations of their own age.

Since the architectural form of the rotunda alone was capable of suggesting a connection with antiquity and at the same time represented modernity, the shaping of the specimens are compared to the Tivoli model. In this comparison the interior decoration and its implications might appear secondary. However, its significance lies in the fact that the designation and decoration of a rotunda became an important means for the adaptation of the building, representing the personality and personal affinities of the builder, the expectations of a country or community. When the rotundas with their statues and embellishments depicted political, philosophical programs, they reflected upon the present of the given country and anticipated a future image. For example, Stowe in England symbolizes liberal democracy, Ermenonville in France suggests the importance of science for humanity. In the two Polish rotundas at Puŀawy and Arkadia the enumeration of the relics of Polish and universal culture serves to preserve the unity and memory Poland cut up into three parts. These rotundas carry unusually strong emotional contents, which also characterizes the other colonnaded round temples, including the “Temples of Friendship”(Veltrusy, Pavlovsk, Kassel).

Where is the place of the Hungarian rotundas on this spectrum? The first was built by Count Antal Apponyi (1751–1817) at Hőgyész in Southern Hungary, in the garden of his country house (fig. 12). As a leading statesman of the Hungarian Kingdom, he spent a lot of time in his Vienna palace; steeped in music, he was the president of the Vienna Musikverein; also a free mason, he was one of the nominators of Joseph Haydn for his admission to the Vienna lodge. In his garden designed by Viennese masters he had a rotunda surrounded — unusually — by eight columns. The temple was to house the same-size replica of the Medici Venus in marble, made according to family tradition by Giuseppe Ceracchi of Rome, an Italian sculptor favored by European courts. For some time in the 1780s he worked in Vienna and was a member of the same masonic lodge as Apponyi. Later the sculptor became a Jacobin and was guillotined in Paris.

The other, far better known rotunda (fig. 13) was ordered by Prince Miklós Esterházy (1764–1833) to be built in the landscape garden (1803—1822) of his mansion in Kismarton (today Eisenstadt, Austria). The large-scale garden and its edifices were planned by the prince's architect from Paris, Charles Moreau. The character of the building has similarities with the rotunda of Méréville in both the shape of the building and the sculptural ornamentation of the interior. Besides, both rotundas were preceded by a painter's picture as a source of inspiration to have a rotunda in a natural setting. In Méréville Hubert Robert, in Eisenstadt Albert Christoph Dies painted a picture in oil (1807, fig. 11). A few years earlier Dies made a series of engravings of picturesque Italian landscapes including the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli (1793, fig. 10). Although the rotunda in Eisenstadt was first to have been dedicated to Neptun, then to Venus, eventually the prince had the magnificent statue of his daughter Leopoldina Esterházy by Antonio Canova inspired by statues of classical antiquity (1805–1819, fig. 17) placed in the temple.

The third Hungarian rotunda perished long ago, its memory revived by this paper alone. It was ordered to be built by Archduke Joseph of Habsburg (the brother of Emperor Francis I), the palatine of Hungary. His seat was in the royal castle of Buda, and he had a duly famous landscape garden on Margaret Island in the Danube. In the centre of his rural estates, Alcsút, he had a representative country house erected in a former wasteland and with the help of his court gardener Anton Trost a magnificent landscape garden was created around the house. At the tallest point he had first a monopteros (fig. 21) and later in the first half of the 1840s a peripteros erected (fig. 18) in which he collected the stone relics of a Roman military camp found in the neighborhood and excavated upon his order. Similarly to their European counterparts, the rotundas in Hőgyész, Eisenstadt and Alcsút manifest the changing concept of nature and the attraction to antiquity as a reliable point of reference. The owners chose for their landscape gardens a building type reminding one of ancient Rome while in the interiors all three manifested their personal relations to antiquity through different cultural orientations. That lent the architectural form and spiritual function of the colonnaded rotundas their exceptional harmony — for a short time.

In a relatively short time, this harmony began to crumble. Not that the decisions to choose these art works or architectural forms were mistaken: this building type was an up-to-date representative of European landscape gardens all over Central Europe at that time. The world changed around them concerning their function; nearly in the same decades as their construction, new communal forms and spaces of encountering arts, including the art of antiquity had appeared all over Europe: the museum. It emerged as an urban phenomenon, as part of the urban culture, accessible to all, a promoter or means of social integration. The art works — however valuable — collected by private art patronage and displayed in aristocratic residences were gradually obscured and left out of publicity, affecting their subsequent fate. Leopoldina Esterházy's statue disappeared from view for a long time, and for some sixty years now it has been in the Eisenstadt mansion instead of the peripteros. The replica of the Venus de' Medici once at Hőgyész was given to a Budapest museum by the Apponyi family over a century ago (figs. 15, 16) and the round temple was converted into their sepulchral chapel. The rotunda at Alcsút was pulled down in the second half of the 19th century, the Roman relics in the estate of palatine Joseph were transferred to the Hungarian National Museum (fig. 19). Few of the European peripteroi kept their original interior decoration, and those that did relied on the active participation of the official historic garden protection.

The art historical significance of the colonnaded round temples lies in their dual function in a decisive art form of the age, landscape architecture: they were pronounced elements of space articulation on the one hand and the representatives of the owners' attitude to antiquity and modernity. That lent them their appeal in and outside England, their adoption and transfer to the continent symbolizing a wide European horizon and the affirmation of the cultural community. The visual power of the formal order of a peripteros still emanates exceptional harmony and solemnity. This even comes through from the garden and landscape photos of visitors to landscape gardens, from the background elements of newly-wed couples or, for that matter, from the rotunda appearing at a dramaturgical culminating point in a new film adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (2005, featuring Keira Knightley).

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Kísérlet néhány magyarországi ötvösjegy feloldására XIX.

An attempt to elucidate some Hungarian Goldsmiths’ marks XIX

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
András Grotte

To continue my previous papers, I wish to present and try to elucidate the new makers’ marks and mark variants found in private collections and the art trade. The time interval is again the 18–19th centuries. The first to be mentioned are the twin capital cities Buda and Pest, as well as Óbuda. In Buda, new data have been found about Franciscus Mechthler, in Pest about Carolus Schmidt and Menyhárt Boll, in Óbuda of Fülöp Adler. This is followed in alphabetic order by several cities of the Hungarian Kingdom. Arad (Arad, R), Balassagyarmat, Besztercebánya (Banská Bystrica, Neusohl, SK), Eger (Erlau), Esztergom (Gran), Győr (Raab), Igló (Spišská Nová Ves, SK), Kassa (Košice, Kaschau, SK), Kismarton (Eisenstadt, A), Liptószentmiklós (Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš, SK), Losonc (Lučenec, Lizenz, SK), Miskolc, Nagybecskerek (Zren­ janin, SR), Nagykanizsa (Großkirchen), Nagyszeben (Si biu, Hermannstadt, R), Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota, Großsteffelsdorf, SK), Selmecbánya (Banská Štiavnica, Schemnitz, SK), Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare, Sathmar, R), Szentendre, Temesvár (Timişoara, Temeswar, R), Tolna, Zágráb (Zagreb, Agram, HR). The weight of new infor­ mation varies by settlements. In some places only a new version of the known hallmark was found, there are places where new goldsmiths were come across or new biographic data were found of known masters. Finally, I enumerate the goldsmiths’ works in Hungary which display Viennese city mark imitations in addition to the makers’ marks. The article is accompanied with a diagram of 117 goldsmiths’ marks.

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Két atipikus Markó-festmény a kismartoni Esterházy-kastély parkjáról

Two Atypical Markó Paintings of the Park of the Esterházy Mansion in Kismarton (Eisenstadt)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Géza Galavics

Abstract

The paper is connected to the Budapest exhibition in 2011 of Károly Markó (1793–1860), who was born in Hungary but earned a fame as a landscapist in Italy. In the exhibition catalogue Sabine Grabner wrote an article with the title Károly Markó's Viennese Connections, and published two, so-far unknown Markó paintings of 1831 from the central Bohemian country house of Červena Lhota: Landscape with figures in a boat and Landscape with figures strolling in the park. The present paper highlights the identification of the themes of the two paintings. Both were painted of the landscape garden of the Esterházy mansion in Kismarton/Eisenstadt, exactly its two most characteristic views: one shows the lateral view of the garden facade of the mansion and its surroundings, the other features the Leopoldine temple with the pond in front of it. The landscape garden and its edifices were commissioned by Prince Nicolaus Esterházy II (1765–1833), a fabulously rich Hungarian aristocrat and art collector from the Paris-based architect Charles Moreau who studied in Rome. The Leopoldine temple was modelled on the Sybilla temple in Tivoli (the marble statue of Esterházy's daughter Leopoldine was made by Canova for the temple).

Contemporaries and posterity reckon with Markó as the painter of “ideal landscapes with Biblical or mythological figures” and later “Italian landscapes with peasants”. The two paintings of the Kismarton landscape garden are atypical because they present real garden segments, contemporary architecture and genre figures dressed in the fashionable garments of the painter's time. They are unparalleled in the whole Markó oeuvre.

The paper compares the depicted garden sections and buildings with the venues today on the one hand, and with depictions approximately contemporaneous with Markó's works. The latter comparison provides ground to determine how much of the real sight is reflected in the pictures and how much is the pictorial trope drawn from a long-standing tradition by a painter of ideal landscapes.

The paper also touches on the question of the client. It is found that the two pictures were not created for Prince Nicolaus Esterházy who had the mansion and the garden around it built in Eisenstadt, but for a Vienna banker, Markó's main sponsor baron Johann Jakob Geymüller (1760–1834) and his wife. It was from the Geymüller family's Bohemian country house at Kamenica nad Lipou/ Kamnitz that the two painting came to Červena Lhota, and they probably belonged to the multitude of Markó paintings the couple ordered directly from the painter. (In the Austrian mansion of the family at Hollenburg there were still 14 Markó paintings in the early 20th century.) This is also a good example of the shift of art patronage in the early 19th century from the old artistocracy to new art-supporting layers.

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Adatok Johann Jacob Khün „érseki udvari festő” működéséhez, Lippay György pozsonyi nyaralókastélyának újonnan előkerült keleti látképe (1663) kapcsán

Data to the work of Johann Jacob Khün, “painter to the archbishop”, and the newly found eastern view (1663) of György Lippay’s summer residence in Pozsony

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Anna Ecsedy

Archbishop of Esztergom György Lippay’s (1600–1666) summer residence and garden in Pozsony were represented on a series of engravings published in 1663. A hitherto unknown piece of this series features the eastern view of the residence (Bibliotheca Ecclesiae Metropolitanae Strigoniensis, Esztergom; fig.). The sheet bears the signature of Johann Jacob Khün, painter to the archbishop who supposedly produced the drawings for the entire series.

According to various sources most of which were concluded by Klára Garas, Khün came from a family of over four generations of painters and sculptors originated in Besztercebánya. The present study attempts to uncover documents representing Khün’s family relations and personal connections in the milieu of the archbishop’s court at Pressburg.

Only a few sources remain on Johann Jacob Khün’s work in archbishop Lippay’s service. Based on a few miscellaneous allusions and the painter’s recently recovered letter written to the archbishop’s physician and familiar Polycarpus Procopius Bonannus (d. 1664) in 1659, the author presumes that Khün was the grandson of Jacob Khien the elder (d. after 1619) who created the so-called Zmeskál epitaph (Berzevice, c. 1600). Johann Jacob Khün’s father was probably the painter Jacob Khien the younger who became a burgess of Besztercebánya in 1619. Pozsony sculptor Johann Christoph Khien (d. 1696/97), creator of the Holy Trinity column of Nagyszombat (1683–1695), and Ferdinand Khien, a doctor born in Besztercebánya who graduated at the University of Wittenberg (1667) and later worked in Eperjes and Pozsony were probably Johann Jacob Khün’s brothers. Judging by the 1659 letter and other sources, Khün’s brother Ferdinand may well have been helped with the starting of his medical career by Bonannus who probably interceeded for him to spend his pharmacist’s training in Johann Weber’s (1612–1684) pharmacy in Eperjes.

Khün’s letter implies that he may well have produced illustrations for Bonannus’s ambitious but ultimately unpublished and lost opus describing Hungary’s geographical and mineralogical treasures, entitled De admirandis Hungariae rebus, backed by archbishop Lippay and Lord Chief Justice Ferenc Nádasdy (1623–1671). The correspondence of Bonannus, a rare group of sources, provides some important data to the project and Khün’s surmized participation, and might as well lead to closer acquaintance with the process of furnishing and decorating of archbishop György Lippay’s summer residence and garden of Pozsony.

A year after the publishing of the print series Khün already worked as a court painter to Count (later Palatine and Prince) Pál Esterházy (1635–1713). Between 1664 and 1671 he produced at least eight paintings for him, and decorated sixteen rooms of his Kismarton Castle.

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A gróf, a festő és a bécsi ágens: Széchényi Antal képmása Michael Christoph Emanuel Hagelganstól (1762)

The count, the painter and the viennese agent: Portrait of Antal Széchényi by Michael Christoph Emanuel Hagelgans (1762)

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Anna Jávor

The half-length portrait of cavalry general Count Antal Széchényi (1714–1767) is kept in the Rómer Flóris Museum of Győr. During its restoration the painter’s signature came to light: Hagelgans pinxit / Wien 1762, and in the Széchényi family archives the correspondence about the picture can be found. Between the painter and the client, the count’s agent in Vienna, Johann Edler von Hermann was the liaison, who claimed that Hagelgans regarded the painting so good that he kept it for himself and made a replica for Antal Széchényi. In the early 20th century the first picture was kept at the Ludovika military academy in Budapest, and the copy ended up in the museum from the family. The Darmstadt painter signed a representative portrait in the Historical Picture Gallery of the Hungarian National Museum in 1758. Later the portrait – including the face – was overpainted and the coat of arms of chief justice Baron Ferenc Koller as well as the middle cross of the Order of St Stephen Koller received in 1765 were added.

Agent Hermann also tried to find a fresco painter for Antal Széchényi and consulted Gregorio Guglielmi, who was working on Schönbrunn at that time. He failed to get advice, but he did send a master to Nagycenk, who may have been Johann Ignaz Cimbal. Although no baroque fresco was painted in the Széchenyi mansion, but on the basis of the style of the altar picture of the chapel (Christ on the Cross) and the praedella showing the Virgin Mary suggests that they might hypothetically be attributed to the fertile altarpiece and fresco painter who had settled from Wagstadt (Bílovec) to Vienna.

Several Vienna-based agents of Hungarian aristocrats pursued artistic activity and art brokering. Stefan Fabsich and Antal Pruszkay worked for the bishop of Eger Károly Eszterházy, the mentioned Knight Hermann and a certain Heinrich Schwarzenberger and later his widow acquired art works for István Esterházy of Zólyom (Zvolen), who also employed the court agent Johann Stifftel. Between 1758 and 1762 Stifftel was the secretary of the princes Esterházy in Kismarton (Eisenstadt): he arranged for the first contract with the composer Joseph Haydn.

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The documents of the Esterházy and Nádasdy families kept in the Hungarian National Archives are an inexhaustible source of Hungarian culture and art history. To this group belong the three batches of sources giving an insight into the funeral ceremonies of the Esterházys in the 17th century. Sources on the burial customs of the Esterházy family began to be published in the 20th century. In the focus of interest was the battle of Vezekény against the Turks in which four young Esterházys were killed on 26 August 1652 including the head of the family, László. Art works connected to his death, such as the weapons and outfit he wore in the battle, his portrait on the catafalque and the so-called Vezekény dish ordered in commemoration of him, were put up for various historical exhibitions. Two engravings of the funeral procession of the four Esterházys killed in action and buried in Nagyszombat on 26 November 1652 and their castrum doloris are also among the important sources. Using the prints made by Mauritz Lang after Hans Rudolf Miller's drawings, art historian Péter Szabó reconstructed the funeral procession in his book entitled Végtisztesség [Last Tribute] (Budapest 1989). The Esterházy family designated several places of last repose for its members in the 17th century. At the beginning they were buried in the family crypt of the Jesuit church at Nagyszombat [today Trnava, Slovakia] built by palatine Nicholas Esterházy. At the end of the century Pál Esterházy had a crypt built in the Franciscan church at the centre of the family estate in Kismarton [today Eisenstadt, Austria]. The first of the three groups of archival sources is the description of palatine Nicholas Esterházy's funeral procession in the Hungarian and Latin languages. The aristocrat died in 1645 and was buried in Nagyszombat on 11 December. The ceremony was organized by eight directors in kinship with the family, the master of ceremonies being Ferenc Wesselényi, captain of Fülek [today Filakovo, Slovakia]. The procession included the troops and representatives of the Hungarian aristocratic families, the council of Nagyszombat, the local guilds, the teachers and students of the academy, the leaders and bodies of the Catholic Church, deputies of the counties and the marches, and the Esterházys. Various emblems were included in the procession representing Esterházy's military rank (helmet, spurs, sword, stick) and public office as palatine (mace, sword). Separate roles were assigned to the flags including the national flag and to two alter egos who represented Nicholas Esterházy the person. The second group of sources includes the funeral procession and costs of count László Esterházy in Hungarian. The procession is very similar to the palatine's: the participants were nearly the same and the funeral ceremony was also similar. However, the written source and the funeral procession reconstructed by Péter Szabó on the basis of the engraving do not tally at several points. The costs of burial were 8615 forints, a large sum in the age. The paraphernalia were mainly bought in Vienna close to Kismarton. The expenses reveal that as was customary, the family and the familiares were dressed in new clothes and the artisans were given large amounts of money. The third source is the Hungarian account of the death and burial of baron Farkas Esterházy. A lower ranked collateral of the Esterházys, Farkas died unexpectedly in Lőcse [today Levoča, Slovakia] in 1670. Owing to the danger of infection, the funeral had to be staged quickly. Since the Catholic magnate could not be buried in Lutheran Lőcse, Farkas was buried in nearby Szepeshely [today Spišska Kapitula]. The funeral was organized by a relative living in the vicinity, the widow of György Homonnai Drugeth born countess Mária Esterházy. The procession included the locally available noblemen and the representatives of the town of Lőcse. The first two funerals in Nagyszombat were monumental, representative events, while Farkas Esterházy's was far more modest. It can be concluded from the 18 surviving accounts of funeral processions that in the area of the Hungarian Kingdom there was a relatively unified custom of funeral culture modeled first of all on the burial ceremonies of the Habsburg rulers.

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Egy 17. századi főúri temetkezőhely

Nádasdy Ferenc országbíró és a lékai Ágoston-rendi templom Nádasdy-kriptájának kialakítása

A 17th century burial place for aristocrats

Lord Chief Justice Ferenc Nádasdy and the creation of the Nádasdy crypt in the Augustinian church of Léka
Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Bálint Ugry

In recent decades, especially in German language areas, several monographs and studies have stressed the source value in political and social history of the representative relics of burial places and sepulchral art. The resting places of Hungarian aristocrats of the early modern age are also more than mere (style historical, iconographic) sources of “traditional” art historical investigations, as is also pointed out by several recent scientific works in Hungary.

Lord Chief Justice Ferenc III Nádasdy (1623–1671) had the Nádasdy family mausoleum built in Léka (Lockenhaus, Austria). The converted aristocrat commissioned Pietro Orsolino, master builder from Siena, to erect a church and monastery for the Augustinian hermits and the population of the small Transdanubian village. The innovation of the crypt completed in 1669 lies in admitting solely the remains of the Nádasdy family members according to the original concept of the chief justice, thus becoming the first family mausoleum in the crypt of a church running the whole length of the church space.

When Ferenc Nádasdy was executed for his part in the Wesselényi conspiracy against the court in Vienna in 1671, there were two tombs in the central space of the crypt to which an ornamental staircase led from the middle of the nave of the oval church. The chief justice had the double tomb (c. 1562) of his great grandparents palatine Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsay – an outstanding specimen of 16th century Hungarian sepulchral art – transferred from the chapel of Léka castle. The tomb is covered with a late gothic slab showing the palatine and his wife kneeling at the stem of the cross. The monumental baroque tomb of Ferenc Nádasdy and his wife Anna Julianna Esterházy (c. 1669) was probably made by masters of the Léka guild of builders and masons.

Research of the past years has shown that extensively travelled and highly cultured Ferenc Nádasdy was one of the most conscious aristocratic patrons of the art in Hungary who put the arts sharp-wittedly in the service of his own representation and the political propaganda of the Hungarian Kingdom. In his residences (Keresztúr, Sárvár, Seibersdorf, Pottendorf) he set up picture galleries with different representative goals each; as the holder of the advowson, he had churches (Lorettom, Léka) and chapels (Mariazell, St Stephen’s chapel) founded and ordered altar paintings. He relied on printing to disseminate internationally the historical continuity of the Hungarian statehood threatened by the Ottoman Empire (Mausoleum) and the unity of the Hungarian nation of the estates (series of Widemann portraits).

The crypt of the Léka church was the place of the reverence of ancestors and the expression of Ferenc Nádasdy’s ambition to become palatine. By positioning his and his wife’s tomb opposite his great-grandfather’s in the crypt he founded, he implied his wish to become similar to his forefather. During his political career he failed to acquire the title of palatine, but the “adopter” of the art patron model created by Nádasdy, his brother-in-law Pál Esterházy attained it. Similarly to Nádasdy, Esterházy also had a family crypt built later in the centre of his residence Kismarton (Eisenstadt, Austria) emulating in concept the example of Léka and the Graz mausoleum of Ferdinand II as regards form.

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du XVIII e siècle à créer un système institutionnel comparable à celui des centres culturels occidentaux majeurs (château, jardin, théâtre, opéra, trésor, musée et bibliothèque), ni à fonder une vie curiale de type occidental (Fraknó, Kismarton

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Liszt exhibition with the title “Album d'un voyageur” in Eisenstadt (formerly Kismarton) in Burgenland, commissioned by the Liszt Ferenc Society, which had been invited by the Provincial Museum of Burgenland to organise a joint exhibition to mark the 170

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. 2008 9 1102 1107 Dr. Kismarton Judit orvos jogásztól származó információ. Boos

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