. Bestattung und Totenehrung in römischer Zeit, Sonderausstellung im Römisch-Germanischen Museum, Köln. http://www.cologneweb.com/rgm-3.htm
Verespataktól Lőcséig. (From Verespatak to Lőcse). (In
The names and the few known works by Johann and Christian Baumerth slightly run into one another in the Hungarian art historical literature. On the basis of the data in registers of birth of the evangelical church in Lőcse (Levoča) became clear that we could talk about two painters who were brothers. Johann Baumerth (11 March, 1788–5 March, 1833) worked as a teacher of drawing in the evangelical secondary school for girls in Lőcse (Levoča). His younger brother Christian (8 May, 1792–18 July, 1824) was the pupil of the painter József Czauczik and wanted to develop his knowledge in the Academy of Arts Vienna. His early work is a memorial leaf of Anna Mária Horváth Stansith, wife of Ferenc Máriássy at her death in 1810. We know a few more works of Johann Baumerth. The engravings of the cities of Rozsnyó (Rožňava) and Igló (Spišská Nová Ves) probably were made after his own drawings around 1820. Two gouache paintings (1810) by him recently appeared in art dealer’s gallery, a romantic style landscape and a biblical genre, which remind us to the early romantic landscape painting of Károly Kisfaludy (1788–1830). One of these pictures, the Shipwreck on stormy sea, was made after the composition by Claude Joseph Vernet.
As the next step in a series of publications, the author presents so-far unpublished maker marks and mark variants found in art collections and the art trade, trying to decipher the newly found ones. Concerning already known marks, he relies basically on Elemér Kőszeghy’s book of marks and when the Pest-Buda marks are considered, the work of Ilona P. Brestyányszky is consulted. Additional information is now provided, and some earlier information corrected, about the 19th century goldsmiths of Buda, Pest, Arad, Besztercebánya, Kolozsvár, Lőcse, Nagyvárad, Pápa, Rozsnyó, Veszprém on the basis of registers of births, marriages and deaths and other lists. In the appendix there is a tabular summary of the exhibition and art trade occurrences of artifacts bearing the hallmark of the Kolozsvár goldsmith Sándor Erdődi who worked in the 1840s and ‘50s.
Continuing with his earlier publications (Művészettörténeti Értesítő) the author presents new goldsmith’s marks and mark variants found in private collections and the art trade and makes an attempt to decode them. For already published marks he relies on Elemér Kőszeghy’s book (Elemér Kőszeghy: Hungarian goldsmith’s marks from the Middle Ages to 1867. Budapest 1936) and for the Pest-Buda marks on Ilona P. Brestyánszky’s work (History of goldsmith’s art in Pest-Buda. Budapest 1977), referring to the running numbers in these works. He presents new data about the goldsmiths of Pest, Brassó (Braşov, Kronstadt, Romania), Debrecen, Eperjes (Prešov, Preschau, Slovakia), Lőcse (Levoča, Leutschau, Slovakia), Nagyvárad (Oradea, Großwardein, Romania), Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota, Gross-Steffelsdorf, Slovakia), Szabadka (Subotica, Serbia) and Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare, Romania).
On the architrave of the altar shrine of the Saints John altarpiece in the St James church in Lőcse (Levoca) there are angel heads; the paper is trying to find their source. The motif was most frequently used in the Quattrocento. The most effective disseminator of the fashion of nude and often wingless youngster and children was Donatello in Italy. Angels without distinct functions had the role to indicate heaven which is why they are usually on the upper part of the altarpiece and later of the tabernacle. When they appear in sepulchral monuments, they refer to the hoped-for celestial dwelling of the deceased. A variant, or abridgment as it were, of the infant angel, the winged angel head already appeared in the 14th century. The popularizer of children angels Donatello also created winged angel heads which spread wide in Italy after his works.
The motif arrived in Hungary from Florence. One of its first specimens was probably the white marble tabernacle, an import from Florence, in the chapel of King Matthias Corvinus's Visergrád palace, where the angel's heads were hovering on the archivolts. After that, in the Jagellonian age, they often appeared in different areas of the Hungarian Kingdom (Nyitra, Pest, Pécs, etc.). In a secular context they first emerged in the Buda palace in carved architectonic elements, and after 1490 series of angel heads frequently appeared on all'antica buildings as well all over the country.
It is not only from here but from German areas north of the Alps, where this motif had been mediated by Dürer, that they made their way to the St John altarpiece in Lőcse. Undoubtedly, Hungary had a special role in disseminating the humanism of Italian origin in her broader environment, but connections with areas north of the Alps must not be ignored either. Warnings have come from several experts recently – and with good reason – that the importance of the northern renaissance has been neglected in Hungarian research in order to throw the developments in the Matthias age into deeper relief.
Tablature notations that developed in the sixteenth century in the field of secular European instrumental music had an impact also on the dissemination of purely vocal and vocal-instrumental church music. In this function, the so-called new German organ tablature notation (also known as Ammerbach’s notation) became the most prominent, enabling organists to produce intabulations from the vocal and vocal-instrumental parts of sacred compositions. On the choir of the Lutheran church in Levoča, as parts of the Leutschau/Lőcse/Levoča Music Collection, six tablature books written in Ammerbach’s notation have been preserved. They are associated with Johann Plotz, Ján Šimbracký, and Samuel Marckfelner, local organists active in Zips during the seventeenth century. The tablature books contain a repertoire which shows that the scribes had a good knowledge of contemporaneous Protestant church music performed in Central Europe, as well as works by Renaissance masters active in Catholic environment during the second half of the sixteenth century. The books contain intabulations of the works by local seventeenth-century musicians, as well as several pieces by Jacob Regnart, Matthäus von Löwenstern, Fabianus Ripanus, etc. The tablatures are often the only usable source for the reconstruction of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century polyphonic compositions transmitted incompletely.
Authors:Ludiková Zuzana, Árpád Mikó, and Géza Pálffy
The parish church of Turócszentmárton (Martin, Slovakia) was the main burial place of the Szklabinya and Blatnica lines of the Révay family in the 16–17th centuries. The members of the Hungarian aristocratic family who were buried here were the hereditary holders of the ispán's and chief ispán's offices in Turóc county (lat. perpetuus et supremus comes comitatus Turociensis). Few original funerary monuments survive in the church: there is a single figural tombstone (Ferenc Révay I, †1553) and a painted and gilded funeral coat of arms (Pál Révay I, †1635). The funeral arms of crown guard Péter Révay (†1622) is only known from archive photos, and the only information about the funeral banners is gleaned from collections of inscriptions especially from a collection discovered in the last time in the manuscriptcollection of the University Library in Bratislava. Ferenc Révay's effigy in relief shown in secular attire is rare in the sepulchral art of the Hungarian Kingdom (two analogies are propalatine i.e. a chief justice of the Hungarian Kingdom, Imre Czobor of Czoborszentmihály's tombstone [†1581] in Sasvár [Šaštín] and László Kubinyi's [†1598] in Galánta [Galanta]), but the funeral coats of arms fit in well with pieces found in Nagyszombat (Trnava), Lőcse (Levoča), Csetnek (Štítnik), etc.
This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.
The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.