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Abstract  

A decisive paradigmatic change in the poetry of Lrinc Szab in 1927–1928 seems to be synchronous with a comparable alteration in world literature: a shift from classical modernity to hermetism, abstract objectivism, consciousness lyric and a new subjectivism, trends which anticipated present day styles and have survived in neoavant-gardist and poststructuralist poetics. By this move his poetic practice transcended the phase represented by Stefan George, Rainer Maria Rilke, or Mihly Babits and paralleled poetic events then unseen or unforeseen by Lrinc Szab. These included transmutations in the work of contemporary poets, Gottfried Benn, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound or Attila Jzsef. The novelty was not thematic but modal: a new discourse, a change from the homogeneous to the dialogical conception of the poem. In Lrinc Szab's vision of personality the voice of the actorincludes the voice of the rebellious individualof traditional poetry (with a sociological view, a pragmatical-pedagogical motivation and a psychological quest for truth) counterpoised by the voice of the spectatorexhibiting the stable laws of the universe (passing a logical judgment). It was a radical novelty in his poetry that the distinction and distance of the ego and the world ceased to be a precondition of aesthetic formation and were replaced by the polyphonic utterance of a You and the World, which living in, and at the same time distanced from, the ego enter into a dialogue in their poetic quiddity. The idea of “one justice” informing world history gave way to a demand for the “one's justice.” Lrinc Szab's sense of contradiction between the ego and history was reinforced by his study of Der Einzige und sein Eigentum by Max Stirner. In the light of this work he reconsidered the ideas of religion, fatherland, freedom, love, justice, and liberalism and came to confront all of the bonds of the individual personality and collective action. The poetic adaptation of Stirner's ideas presents a peculiar case of intertextuality: it encourages the poem's train of thought, tunes its mode of discourse, integrates textually in the course and rhetoric of creation, and occasionally informs the poems in their entirety (as a rule those of the highest poetic rank).

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The paper aims at a linguistically based analysis of one of the pearls of Russian love lyrics written by Tyutchev, and of its two Hungarian translations. Master of small forms, the poet concentrates his poetic devices (ambiguities, antitheses, repetitions, etc.) to a high degree, and attains to a harmonious fusion of different stylistic traits. The translation of the poem made by Lőrinc Szabó, a well-known Hungarian poet of the 20th century is handicapped by the use of an intermediate text, and some elements of his own poetical vision here and there outweigh essential features of the original. The translation of Árpád Galgóczy, one of the best contemporary translators of Russian poetry, comes in a lot of instances more close to the original.

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L'étude retrace la réflexion sur le concept de la traduction des grands auteurs-traducteurs hongrois du début du XXe siècle: Mihály Babits, Dezsö Kosztolányi, Árpád Tóth et Lörinc Szabó. L'histoire littéraire de la deuxieme moitié du XXe siècle avait l'habitude de renvoyer le discours sur la théorie et la pratique de Babits, Tóth et Szabó dans le contexte où la réalisation de la fidélité était le seuI critère d'analyse, tandis que le cas de Kosztolányi devait représenter la violation de la convention de la fidélité. Notre étude présente que cette conception ne se justifie pas: les théories de ces auteurs sont riches en conséquences qui ne permettent certainement pas d'établir des contradictions claires. Elle essaie de montrer les nuances du dialogue que ces auteurs ont poursuivi autour des questions de la langue, de la littérature, de l'art et de la traduction.

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Abstract

The present paper gives a positive answer to the question about the possibility of adequate poetic translation. It presents extracts of Russian poetry that contain various phonic devices (e.g. rhythmic variations, sound repetitions, vowel alternations, consonant clusters, etc.) which, in addition to other verbal means, make up the peculiar aesthetic value of a poetic work. The Hungarian translations of the extracts from Pushkin’s The Bronze Horseman and Eugene Onegin, Tyutchev’s Autumn Evening, and Tvardovsky’s Vassili Tyorkin, made by the prominent poets and translators Lajos Áprily, Árpád Galgóczy, and Lőrinc Szabó, masterly reproduce the phonic qualities of the Russian texts, and prove the validity of the Pushkinian claim on the “alliance of sound, thought, and sentiment” in lyric poetry.

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My intention is to reexamine some of the documents of the Hungarian revolution that contain statements by Hungarian writers. On October 26 a two-page pamphlet appeared. Its title - 'Immovably' - referred to Vörösmarty's 'Appeal'. The poems by István Sinka and Ferenc Jankovich, as well as the short essay by the Transylvanian-born author Áron Tamási represented the values of the 'Populist' movement of the interwar period. The texts of the November issue of 'Literary Newsletter' were by a wider range of writers. While most of the poems had been composed in the early 1950s, including 'One Sentence on Tyranny' by Gyula Illyés and 'The Dictator' by Lajos Kassák, the essays by Tibor Déry, László Németh, and Lőrinc Szabó were inspired by the uprising. The third document I wish to examine is the collective statement issued by the Writers' Association on December 28th. Since my paper will focus not on aesthetic values but on political views, I will not exclude texts by mediocre writers. The question I wish to ask is whether any difference can be seen between the positions taken by former communists and those who expressed anti-communist views before 1945.

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the personality shook the lyrical self and lead to its loss of identity: Lőrinc Szabó’s dialogical poetry; the alienated lyrical selves we encounter in the poems of Dezső Kosztolányi and the disintegrating lyrical selves featured in the poetry of

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Heltai, actress Manyi Kiss, composer Zoltán Kodály (third time), theater director Endre Marton (second time), musicologist Antal Molnár, writer László Németh, actor István Somló, actress Mária Sulyok and poet Lőrinc Szabó received their Kossuth Prize. But

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