The paper studies the relationship between key factors influencing senior entrepreneurship and the level of inclusiveness of seniors in entrepreneurial activity in Europe. The objective is to cluster countries with similar patterns in senior entrepreneurial inclusivity and to identify the factors leading to inclusive entrepreneurship of seniors and their social cohesion. The focus is on European countries which participated in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) between 2001 and 2012, using GEM data as the main source for the analyses. Initially, the authors identify the key factors influencing entrepreneurial activity of seniors within Europe based upon data contained within the literature review. At the same time, utilizing the senior entrepreneurship inclusivity index, the authors measure the level of inclusiveness in each European country. Using the results of these analyses the authors subsequently implement a cluster analysis method to create clusters among European countries based upon the similarities in the relationship between the levels of senior entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity of the general population. This helps them identify countries with above average levels of senior entrepreneurship inclusivity. The results allow the authors to assess key similarities in clustered economies in terms of entrepreneurial culture and policies which have a major influence on senior entrepreneurship.
The research concentrates on connections between different dimensions of entrepreneurial capacity and openness towards innovations on one side, and an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur on the other. The results show that an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur in Slovenia is significantly correlated with entrepreneurial awareness, risk aversion and willingness to try new products/services. The correlation is positive in the case of entrepreneurial awareness and in the case of willingness to try new products/services, and negative in the case of risk aversion. An important result of our research is that the belief in the benefits of newness is not significantly correlated with the decision to become an entrepreneur. The results show that willingness to try new products/services is more important than the belief that innovative products/services produced by others will improve one’s life.
The paper presents a research that was focusing on the ideal entrepreneurial attitude, on the one hand, and personality traits that make an individual successful, on the other. The sample was chosen randomly, consisting of 670 respondents who were entrepreneurs not only from an administrative-legal point of view but also in a psychological sense. Asset index (AI) and turnover index (TI) were used as economic indicators of success, while CPI was applied for the examination of personality traits. Two types of successful entrepreneurs were distinguished by the researchers. Type A entrepreneurs (high AI factor value) were found to attach importance to increasing the value of fixed assets in their business activity. Their personality is characterized by increased dominance, endeavor to take a leading role, increased motivation for achievement and success, ability to achieve high social status, self-confidence, ability to exert social influence effectively, and strong aspiration to present themselves in a favorable light. The business activity of Type B entrepreneurs (high TI factor value), is characterized by a high level of self-knowledge, satisfaction with their social status and role, increased need to meet community expectations, good adaptation and accommodation skills and a strong ability to shape social relations, endeavor to increase net profit (earnings).
Despite the vitality and dynamism that the field of entrepreneurship has experienced in the last decade, the issue of whether it comprises an effective network of (in)formal communication linkages among the most influential scholars within the area has yet to be examined in depth. This study follows a formal selection procedure to delimit the ‘relational environment’ of the field of entrepreneurship and to analyze the existence and characterization of (in)visible college(s) based on a theoretically well-grounded framework, thus offering a comprehensive and up-to-date empirical analysis of entrepreneurship research. Based on more than a 1,000 papers published between 2005 and 2010 in seven core entrepreneurship journals and the corresponding (85,000) citations, we found that entrepreneurship is an (increasingly) autonomous, legitimate and cohesive (in)visible college, fine tuned through the increasing visibility of certain subject specialties (e.g., family business, innovation, technology and policy). Moreover, the rather dense formal links that characterize the entrepreneurship (in)visible college are accompanied by a reasonably solid network of informal relations maintained and sustained by the mobility of ‘stars’ and highly influential scholars. The limited internationalization of the entrepreneurship community, reflected in the almost total absence of non-English-speaking authors/studies/outlets, stands as a major quest for the field.
Authors:Predrag Ljubotina, Štefan Bojnec, and Jaka Vadnjal
While recent research on family business succession has focused on examining the importance of individual and family characteristics, the role of macroeconomic conditions has been often neglected. This paper investigates the impacts of macroeconomic conditions on family business heir's career choice intention using individual level cross-country data of 18 European countries for the year 2013. We find that the level of economic development measured by GDP per capita, growth of GDP per capita, and youth rate of unemployment influence a family business heir's career choice intention. We also demonstrate that beyond the cross-country differences in macroeconomic conditions, individual characteristics of siblings, age, gender, work experience in family business, and start-up time play an important role. To mitigate succession failures, policies towards business succession with related firm survival should be specifically designed depending on different macroeconomic and youth labour market conditions.
The focus of our research is the internationalisation of the small-medium size family firms in Hungary, with particular attention to the effect of generational change on internationalisation. Our examination is based on interviews with the current management of six family firms from different industries. We had two research propositions: First, we analysed if and how successors in the family businesses were more open to the internationalisation of the company. Our results provide insights reflecting that the predecessors are usually quite open, and successors are not always as open when they assume control over the company, unlike the existing internationalisation patterns of family firms would suggest. Potential explanations reveal related characteristics of the Central-Eastern European (CEE) region. Secondly, in terms of how and why the leadership style and approach of the predecessors affect the internationalisation of family firms, our findings from different cases vary. The historical and cultural background of the family firms' founders and early-generation successors exert notable influence on the internationalisation process, while the role of predecessors' personal characteristics may not be as strong a driver of internationalisation as previously suggested. The management implications of our findings suggest that the Hungarian family firms show regional patterns in terms of their internationalisation, and generic approaches to generational change and succession may not explain the process as much as extant literature on international family business suggests.
Authors:Éva Komlósi, László Szerb, Zoltán J. Ács, and Raquel Ortega-Argilés
This paper presents a regional application of the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) methodology of Acs et al. (2013) to examine the level of entrepreneurship across Hungary’s seven NUTS-2 level regions between 2006 and 2012. The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index (REDI) has been constructed for capturing the individual efforts, and their contextual features, of entrepreneurship across regions. The REDI method builds on a Systems of Entrepreneurship Theory and provides a way to profile Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship. Important aspects of the REDI method include the Penalty for Bottleneck analysis, which helps in identifying constraining factors in Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship, and Policy Portfolio Optimisation analysis, which helps policymakers consider trade-offs between alternative policy scenarios and associated allocations of policy resources. The paper describes the entrepreneurial disparities amongst Hungarian regions and provides public policy suggestions to improve the level of entrepreneurship and to optimise resource allocation over the 14 pillars of entrepreneurship in the seven Hungarian regions.
Authors:Annamária Dézsi-Benyovszki and Tünde Petra Szabó
This study focuses on the theory of planned behaviour in order to understand and to predict the entrepreneurial behaviour of Romanian early-stage entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs, identifying the main differences among them. We first present the individual level analysis of these new venture creators using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey database of Romania from 2011 to 2014, followed by the estimation of logistic regressions in order to test the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting entrepreneurial behaviour. We aim to contribute to the understanding of differences in start-up activities by broadening the concept of start-up to include intrapreneurship as well. The findings of this study provide partial support of the theory of planned behaviour.
Competitiveness is defined at the level of firms, clusters, regions, and nations. Although researchers have extensively explored the concept of competitiveness in each of these respective categories, an understanding of the relationship between levels of competitiveness is lacking. The simple aggregation of indicators to approximate broader categories of competitiveness is challenged as a robust solution. This paper proposes an alternative solution to aggregating firm-level competitiveness, based on the profit—growth nexus. Using data collected from SMEs in two ICT clusters, the size— profit—growth relationships were tested. Based on 83 Hungarian and 71 Australian responses, positive relationships were found in both samples, demonstrating high cluster-level competitiveness. It is argued that this outcome better represents cluster-level competitiveness based on firm-level data, than other — linear and additive — aggregation methods. However, a comparative examination of the data across the clusters showed significant differences between the results of the two samples, ascertaining limitations for the generalisability of the results.
We develop a model of scientific creativity and test it in the field of rare diseases. Our model is based on the results of an in-depth case study of the Rett Syndrome. Archival analysis, bibliometric techniques and expert surveys are combined with network analysis to identify the most creative scientists. First, we compare alternative measures of generative and combinatorial creativity. Then, we generalize our results in a stochastic model of socio-semantic network evolution. The model predictions are tested with an extended set of rare diseases. We find that new scientific collaborations among experts in a field enhance combinatorial creativity. Instead, high entry rates of novices are negatively related to generative creativity. By expanding the set of useful concepts, creative scientists gain in centrality. At the same time, by increasing their centrality in the scientific community, scientists can replicate and generalize their results, thus contributing to a scientific paradigm.