Authors:Katalin Antalóczy, Tamás Gáspár, and Magdolna Sass
The length, the composition, the quality and the characteristics of value chains essentially determine the corporate as well as the macroeconomic performance of the economic sectors and industries. Hungary has a strong tradition in the pharmaceutical industry but its dynamising impact seems to be limited on the economy. The aim of this paper is to detect and reveal the specialties of the Hungarian pharmaceutical industry both in space and time by a value chain analysis. Our method is partly quantitative, we use an input-output analysis; and partly qualitative, relying on interviews with the representatives of pharmaceutical companies. We found that the Hungarian pharma value chain is really special, having relatively short backward and forward linkages with mainly indirect value-added contribution as well as high import content of exports. However, our company interviews revealed the fundamental differences between original and generic value chains – i.e. again a pharma industry-specific distinction. Having relatively little original and more substantial generic production in Hungary explains much of the value chain specialties, which leaves its mark on the limited impact of the industry on the national economy.
Ti-SBA-15, one of the latest titanium silicalite catalysts, has been prepared according to the literature by the direct hydrothermal synthesis using Pluronic 123 as structure-directing agent. The characterization of the catalyst was performed by means of the following methods: XRD, IR, UV–Vis, X-ray microanalysis and SEM. The catalytic properties of the Ti-SBA-15 catalyst have been tested in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol, methallyl alcohol, crotyl alcohol and 1-butene-3-ol with hydrogen peroxide. The process has been described by the following main functions: the selectivity to epoxide compound in relation to allylic compound consumed and the conversion of allylic compound.
We develop a model of scientific creativity and test it in the field of rare diseases. Our model is based on the results of an in-depth case study of the Rett Syndrome. Archival analysis, bibliometric techniques and expert surveys are combined with network analysis to identify the most creative scientists. First, we compare alternative measures of generative and combinatorial creativity. Then, we generalize our results in a stochastic model of socio-semantic network evolution. The model predictions are tested with an extended set of rare diseases. We find that new scientific collaborations among experts in a field enhance combinatorial creativity. Instead, high entry rates of novices are negatively related to generative creativity. By expanding the set of useful concepts, creative scientists gain in centrality. At the same time, by increasing their centrality in the scientific community, scientists can replicate and generalize their results, thus contributing to a scientific paradigm.
functioning of the European Union, published in the Official Journal of the European Union L65/1 of 11 March 20–1.
Valea, D. C. (2012): Constitutional review of citizens’ initiatives in Romania. Juridical Current Journal
Authors:D. Sternik, M. Majdan, A. Deryło-Marczewska, G. Żukociński, A. Gładysz-Płaska, V. M. Gun'ko, and S. V. Mikhalovsky
) natural zeolite [Transcarpathian clinoptilolite, Clin, with the general formula of (K 2.3 Na 0.5 Ca 2.1 Mg 0.6 Fe(III) 0.9 Fe(II) 0.2 Ti 0.2 )(Si 31.4 A l6.5 O 44 ) · 21.8H 2 O and the chemical composition (in %): SiO 2 , 67.29; TiO 2 , 0.26; Al 2 O 3 , 12
Authors:Alexandra Sashova Alexandrova, Lena Petrova Setchanova, Daniela Rosenova Pencheva, and Ivan Gergov Mitov
-susceptibility Using the meningitis criteria and the MIC values for benzylpenicillin (MIC ≥ 0.1 mg/L), 65% of the serogroup 6 isolates were classified as PNSP and 5% were ceftriaxone non-susceptible (Table I ). Among the meningitis isolates ( n = 6), we observed
Tugend macht.“ (Hervorhebung von mir, M. L.) 65 Hauptsächlich ab dem letzten Drittel des Jahrhunderts. Vgl. Werner Wilhelm Schnabel , Das Stammbuch: Konstitution und Geschichte einer textsortenbezogenen Sammelform bis ins erste Drittel des 18