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In a long-term continuous maize experiment set up in 1959, the functional method of growth analysis was applied to investigate the effect of various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertilisation on the growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and on the dynamics of the growth parameters over a 3-year period (2005–2007). The experiment involved two nutrient levels (based on the active agent equivalence principle): Level l: the NPK equivalent of 35 t ha−1 farmyard manure (FYM), applied in the form of FYM, FYM + mineral fertiliser or mineral fertiliser; Level 2: the NPK equivalent of 70 t ha−1 farmyard manure (FYM), applied in the form of FYM, FYM + mineral fertiliser or mineral fertiliser. The computerised growth analysis program elaborated by Hunt and Parsons (1974) was used to describe the effect of FYM and mineral fertiliser and to evaluate the results. This program fits functions to calculate the absolute growth rate (AGR), the relative growth rate (RGR), the net assimilation rate (NAR) and the leaf area ratio (LAR).The Hunt-Parsons program fitted a third-degree function to the dynamics of total dry matter production and second- or third-degree functions to that of the leaf area growth. The highest mean values of AGR were obtained in treatments with the higher level of mineral fertiliser alone or mineral fertiliser + FYM when the weather was favourable (2.05–2.31 g plant−1 day−1), and in treatments with the lower quantity of mineral fertiliser alone or mineral fertiliser + FYM in the case of dry weather (1.73–1.74 g plant−1 day−1). In 2005 and 2006 the absolute growth rate gave a good characterisation of the various fertiliser effects, which exhibited high values with significant differences, while in 2007 lower AGR values were obtained and no fertiliser effects were observed. In the dry year (2007) the maximum values of NAR and LAR were higher in all the treatments than in the wetter years (except at the lower rate of mineral fertiliser alone). In the case of NAR, the results obtained with the functional method of growth analysis, based on function fitting, were easier to interpret than those obtained using the classical method.It was concluded from the results that in long-term experiments the use of the functional method of growth analysis gave a more precise evaluation of the effects of fertiliser treatments and the year on the growth of maize in the vegetative growth stage and on the mean and maximum values of growth parameters.

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In 538 randomly selected Swedish biomedical PhDs from 2008, 50% of the external examiners came from abroad, most commonly USA and UK. The sex distribution between candidates was equal, while 17% of the external examiners were women. Twice as many women candidates as men had women examiners. Swedish PhDs are based on work published in international peer-reviewed journals; the median number of works per thesis was 4. The Swedish thesis examination system offers a model for international cross-fertilisation.

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The present paper discusses the origin of the Hungarian particle igen 'yes', for which no convincing etymology has been presented so far. It is suggested that it is a selective copy of Turkic egen ~ igen (< erken), an indirective and/or emphatic rhetorical particle ('evidently', 'obviously', 'apparently', 'as it appears', 'it turns out that', 'indeed'), derived from er- 'to be' and used as part of the predicate core and/or as a postpredicate element to convey consenting or admitting answers.

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Fungal colony size development, often measured as the increase in colony diameter, is used frequently as a parameter for presenting and modelling fungi's biomass growth. Another measure of fungal growth is the heat production rate (thermal power), which represents the metabolic activities of the fungi. In this study, the colony size and the heat production rate were simultaneously measured on a filamentous fungus, Penicillium brevicompactum, at five temperatures. The colony growth was recorded by digital photography and the colony size was quantified by image analysis. The heat production rate was measured by an isothermal calorimeter. The results showed that the growth of mould is temperature dependent. During the active growing stage, the colony size increase is correlated to the heat produced by the mould.

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Firms are increasingly dependent on networks and network visibility for innovation. Bibliometric impact can be regarded as a measure of a firm's visibility in knowledge-producing networks and may explain why companies publish their results. However, this visibility varies across disciplines. This paper examines publications produced by Danish companies in 1996, 1998 and 2000 to show how citation and collaboration patterns relate in different disciplines. The main findings are that for disciplines characterized by international collaboration and many authors per paper, international collaboration results in a greater number of citations. National collaboration does not, however, seem to make any difference to citation impact in industrial research. In disciplines where multinational collaboration and multi-authorship is uncommon, no clear picture of impact patterns can be obtained. By extension, this research may provide knowledge on how citations of papers in scientific journals can be used as a potential window to scientific networks for firms.

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This longitudinal survey of Swedish biomedical PhDs from 1991 to 2009 found a 2.5-fold increase in biomedical PhD graduates, especially women, and mainly non-MDs, while the number of MDs remained fairly constant. The proportion obtaining a biomedical PhD in Sweden in 2006 was two and a half times that in USA compared to population and three and a half times by GDP, but similar to that of the Netherlands. Female non-MD but not female MD candidates were more likely than men to be examined by female examiners. Fewer of the non-MD than MD women continued to publish in English after their PhD. The median number of authors per paper in a thesis had increased by 1 (from 4 to 5) compared with 15–20 years ago. Swedish biomedical research was already well internationalized in 1991, when 38% of the external examiners came from abroad. This rose to 53% in 2003 but in 2009 had returned to 42%. USA and UK were the most common countries but Australia accounted for 2%. When assessed by connection with foreign research teams, Swedish researchers were also internationally well connected. Studies in other countries are needed to assess how generally applicable these findings are. Our findings suggest that the policy and management of Swedish scientific research systems needs revision to harmonize with the national economic capacity.

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A review of 649 PhDs undertaken by Swedish nurses and midwives found no evidence that they stop publishing in English after their PhD. The proportion of 70% for any publication in English was similar to that of MDs. A higher proportion of male than female nurses were high publishers of six or more (52% vs. 23%) and eight or more papers (44% vs. 14%) in a 5 year period. The standard of the PhDs of Swedish nurses was comparable to those of other biomedical PhDs and was consistent in pattern over the past two decades. The gender pattern of external examiners of female nurses evolved in that 1992–94, 75% were men, during 1996–97, 54% were men and from 2000 onwards 46% were men. Nurses were examined by foreign examiners in 20% of examinations. They came primarily from Norway and USA.

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Isothermal calorimetry is a powerful technique for the study of kinetics of physical, chemical, and biological processes, for example, of their temperature dependence. A new heat conduction calorimeter that simultaneously makes measurements on four samples at four different temperatures is presented in this article. Results from tests with four biological systems (milk fermentation, carrot juice spoilage, sunflower seed germination, and moss respiration) are shown. In all the cases, the instrument could measure the heat production rate—and thus the process rate—at the different temperatures used.

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Let K be a convex body in ℝd, let j ∈ {1, …, d−1}, and let K(n) be the convex hull of n points chosen randomly, independently and uniformly from K. If ∂K is C + 2, then an asymptotic formula is known due to M. Reitzner (and due to I. Bárány if ∂K is C + 3) for the difference of the jth intrinsic volume of K and the expectation of the jth intrinsic volume of K(n). We extend this formula to the case when the only condition on K is that a ball rolls freely inside K.

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We define a multidimensional rearrangement, which is related to classical inequalities for functions that are monotone in each variable. We prove the main measure theoretical results of the new theory and characterize the functional properties of the associated weighted Lorentz spaces.

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