The effects of stand structure, tree species composition, proportion of habitat types and land use history on breeding bird assemblages in temperate mixed forests in Western Hungary were studied. The species richness, the abundance and the composition of the whole breeding bird assemblage and of some groups formed on the basis of nesting site and rarity were examined. Stand structural variables had the highest impact on the breeding bird assemblage, while tree species composition, the varying proportion of vegetation types and land use history had no significant effect. In the case of the species richness, the abundance and the composition of the whole assemblage, the most important variables were the mean diameter of trees, the vegetation cover of the forest floor and the dead wood volume. The explained variance in the linear models of different groups varied between 20% and 60%, and the relative importance of these three variables also differed considerably. These results indicate that forest management may considerably influence the diversity and the composition of birds, as all the structural elements affecting birds deeply depend on it. Within the shelterwood management system, the elongation of the rotation and regeneration periods, and the relatively high proportion of retention tree groups after harvest could contribute to the conservation of forest birds. Our results also showed that for the forest bird communities, both the prevalence of big trees and the presence of a dense understory layer are important. Management regimes which apply continuous forest cover might be more appropriate for providing these structural elements simultaneously on small spatial scales, and for the maintenance of a more diverse bird community, thus healthier forest ecosystems.
Authors:B. Czúcz, Zs. Molnár, F. Horváth, and Z. Botta-Dukát
In this paper we present an implementation of the natural capital index (NCI), a highly aggregated policy-relevant biodiversity indicator for Hungary, based on the MÉTA database, a detailed field-based vegetation database with a habitat quality attribute. To this end, we introduce two different weighting schemes for the field-estimated MÉTA values, both rooted in the concept of ecosystem services: a linear “equal steps” (NCI
) and an exponential (NCI
) weighting scheme. The natural capital index of Hungary and its physical geographical regions are calculated and presented from both aspects. The national NCI
is 9.9% (indicating an overall 90% loss in the availability of the major supporting ecosystem services), and NCI
is 3.2% (indicating an even greater degree of loss in terms of the conservation of rare species). The geographical regions of Hungary exhibit considerable spatial variation, which reveals important information on their basic characteristics (e.g. agricultural potential) and land use history. As NCI can be calculated on any spatial scales from local to national, this indicator may become a useful tool for policy development and evaluation purposes, including environmental impact assessments (EIA) and strategic environmental assessments (SEI). However, due to several conceptual limitations (e.g. disregard for rarity, spatial structure and cultural values, questions of recency and repetition) NCI should not be regarded as a self-sufficient universal tool, and strategic decisions should be based on careful consideration of all potentially relevant factors.
. Cabido , M. Zak , E. Martinez Carretero and J. Araniba . 1999 . Plant functional traits, ecosystem structure and land-usehistory along a climatic gradient in central-western Argentina . J. Veg. Sci. 10 : 651 – 660
Authors:Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Marianna Makádi, Márta Fuchs, Ádám Csorba, Erika Michéli, Ibolya Demeter, András Táncsics, and Tamás Szegi
, K. , Williams , M.A. , Franzluebbers , A.J. , Schmidt , T.M. , Coleman , D.C. , Whitman , W.B. , 2011 . Land-usehistory has a stronger impact on soil microbial community composition than aboveground vegetation and
E NTWISTLE , J. A. , A BRAHAMS , P. W. & D ODGSHON , R. A. , 1998 Multi-element analysis of soils from Scottish historical sites . Interpreting land-usehistory trough the physical and geochemical analysis of soil. J. Archaeol. Sci . 25
Authors:S. Bartha, G. Campetella, E. Ruprecht, A. Kun, J. Házi, A. Horváth, K. Virágh, and Zs. Molnár
Vegetation reconstruction based on historical vegetation maps and applications to the Danube-Tisza Interfluve
. PhD Thesis, Pécs.
Biró, M. and Molnár, Zs. 1998. Vegetation and land-usehistory in the sand dunes of the