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AA in which the constituents are coreferential with the main clause’s constituents. This problem with the absoluteness of AA in Classical Latin has also been noted and analysed by Paolo Ramat 2 and Carol Fry. 3 The world of Late Latin is even less

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Present volume of Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae publishes a selection of papers presented at the 13 th International Colloquium on Vulgar and Late Latin - Latin vulgaire - latin tardif XIII (September 3-7, 2018, Faculty of

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1 INTRODUCTION: GERUND AS AN “ABSOLUTIVE” It is well known that Late Latin uses the gerund as a substitute for the present participle, for example in Peregr. 15. 5, redirent mature … dicendo psalmos, where the ablative dicendo stands for

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Glare, P. G. W. (ed.): Oxford Latin Dictionary . Oxford 1968–1982. 7 Souter, A.: A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 AD . Oxford 1949, hier iii–iv. 8 Blaise, A.: Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens . 2 e éd. revue et augmentée. Turnhout

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In Early and Classical Latin, we encounter a rich and complex system in which prefixes are used to render verbs telic and to emphasise the beginning or end of a process or of an activity, and in which the opposition between non-dynamicity and dynamicity or between transitivity and intransitivity is expressed by various suffixes. In the perfect there is an opposition between non-dynamic unprefixed verbs and dynamic prefixed ones. In the later centuries this system breaks down, and there is a blurring of the semantic difference between the prefixed and unprefixed verbs and often also of that between the prefixes themselves. New verbs are formed to replace old verbs that have lost their old functions. These changes pervade the whole verbal system in Latin and affect the semantic relationship between the perfect and imperfect tenses. In Romance, the definite and indefinite articles express the functions previously expressed by the various actional forms.

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the pluperfect tense to express anterior background, i.e. perfectum pro plusquamperfecto (ideational tense: E < R < S; textual tense: E < R), which increasingly occurs in Late Latin, especially in main clauses. 16 Consider example 17 (1): Tunc

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Summary

Proto-Romance linguistic transformations are partially hidden by the archaic style that char- acterizes Late Latin documents. However, these texts (e. g. chronicles) permit insights into the changes undergone by the oral language, because authors and scribes can reproduce unconsciously their own speech habits, already different from Classical standard. In our presentation, this curious duality is shown by the example of noun declension, which is undermined, but not yet completely eliminated, in 7th century Latin. A comparison is made between the so-called Fredegarius, a Merovingian chronicle, and an early French poem, the Eulalia Sequence, which manifests the last stage of the declension, just before its disappearance. The morphological change has its counterpart in the restructuration of the sentence: the neighbourhood of subject and verb becomes usual in the surface structure, and certain limitations are im- posed upon the freedom of word order. Thus, the reconstruction process we propose has two aspects: it is necessary to describe the diastratic variation at different moments of the history of Late Latin, and, on the other hand, the results need to be compared with the Early Romance linguistic systems. In this manner, reconstruction can show the coexistence of tradition and innovation in the language, a necessary condition of its normal functioning.

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This study presents some of the most important phonological and grammatical phenomena which show the evolution of Late Latin in the Roman province of Britannia. The investigation is based on a corpus of inscriptions on stone (established by Collingwood and Wright). The Vulgar Latin of Britannia seems not very different from that of other provinces, but the progression of certain changes is slower. The author insists on the different origins of soldiers and colonists who took part in the romanization of the island.

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, F. ET AL. (éd.) : Latin vulgaire, latin tardif IX. Actes du IX e colloque international sur le latin vulgaire et tardif, Lyon 2-6 septembre 2009. Lyon 2012, 291–307 ; Carlier, A. – DE MULDER, W. : The Emergence of the Definite Article in Late Latin

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The aim of the project entitled “Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age” ( http://lldb.elte.hu/ ) is to develop and digitally publish a fundamental computerized historical linguistic database that incorporates and treats the Vulgar Latin material of the Latin inscriptions from a specific group of the European provinces of the Roman Empire in the first phase. This will, on the one hand, allow for a more thorough study of the regional changes and the diversity of the Latin language of the Imperial Age. On the other hand, it could also serve as a basis for subsequent international co-operation, in the course of which further work on the computerized historical linguistic database may be executed. This paper intends to present the past and the present, as well as the future possibilities of this Database.

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