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Whereas researchers were hitherto focused on literary sources and monuments from ancient Rome this article deals with objects from Late Antiquity connecting Early-Christian and pagan illustrations, especially from the Hungarian part of the Roman Empire. Under the influence of Christian religion combined with modifications in Roman law, several changes had an impact on the environments of children. The question is whether these alterations had also an effect on the pictures of children. For examining this presumption, depictions of children and infant Christ are investigated because Christian art is linked to the tradition of pagan Roman art. So a separation of these two groups of representations makes absolutely no sense but has been done by scholars until now.

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The presence of war elephants in the Near East between the late third and early seventh centuries, and especially in Romano-Sasanian conflicts, is frequently reported in a wide variety of contemporary sources. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence for the military use of elephants over this period. This study gives particular attention to the literary concerns of individual authors, whether writing in Latin, Greek, Armenian, or Arabic, which might have influenced their inclusion of vivid depictions of war elephants. Informed by comparative evidence from Indian sources, this assessment also identifies a more diverse range of military applications and capabilities of elephants than in the 'classic' age of elephant warfare in the Hellenistic period.

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The inhabitants of the steppes around the Black Sea and the nearby areas of the wooded steppe must be recognised as having played a special role in the events that occurred during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These populations were known not only by their peculiar living conditions but also various cultural models, even though the pastoral nature of their economy and the continuous movements related to it were of fundamental importance. The steppe was also an extensive link that facilitated contacts with the nomads present beyond the southern course of the Volga and Ural rivers, in the vast territories of the Central Asian zones up to the border with China. Toward the end of Late Antiquity, the ethnic make-up of the inhabitants of those territories changed. The Indo-European nomads were replaced by the groups of Turks-Mongols that arrived in subsequent waves from the Asian steppes. These included the Huns, who in 375 had destroyed the state of the Goths on the Black Sea and, having settled after 420 in the woods and plains crossed by the river Tisza, continued to go beyond the Pannonian limes to strike the areas closer to the border. The intensity of these incursions increased after 434 whenAttila unified the nomadic tribes under his command, creating a vast empire of the steppe whose centre was located between the Tisza and the middle region of the Danube. The Huns also cooperated with the subjugated communities, first and foremost the rest of the Goths, Gepids and other Germans who had remained in their residential areas, but also theAlani and the Jazigs. It was only after the defeat of 451 on the Catalaunian Plains, the failed Italian expedition of 452 and the sudden death of Attila in 453 that the Hun Empire completely fell apart. The final blow was struck on the Nedao River in southern Pannonia by the forces united under the command of the Gepids in 454 or 455. What triggered a new shift of Germanic populations, considered the final phase of the period of the “Great Migrations” of peoples, was the ingress of the Langobards into Italy in 568. This alliance of Germanic tribes had appeared at the beginning of the 6 th century on the shores of the Danube and, taking full advantage of the collapse of that sector of the limes in 526, began to occupy Pannonia. In the face of the danger represented by the Avars, and the new nomads who began to occupy the entire plain crossed by the Tisza, the Langobards decided to abandon Pannonia, leaving it to the Avars on the basis of a peace treaty.

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Nicola di Cosmo – Michael Maas (eds) : Empires and exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity. Rome, China, Iran, and the Steppe, ca. 250–750 . Cambridge 2018 , Hardback - 496 p. - ISBN 978-1-107-09434-5 .

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It is highly probable that Latin and Greek religious hymns written in hexameters between the early 4th and the early 6th centuries under a more or less evident influence of theological concepts of neoplatonic origin, contain anti-christian polemics expressed indirectly, that ist to say by alluding to Christian terminology. In doing so, the poets make use of exactly the same apologetical method Christian authors had adopted in the period prior to 313 in order to make their own works acceptable also for pagan readers. To prove the existence of so called 'Cryptochristianisms' (a term created by Jacques Fontaine some thirty years ago) in the pagan hymns of the Late Antiquity, three pieces have been analysed, two of them written in Latin (Hymn to Sol, Anthologia Latina 385 Shackleton Bailey, and Tiberianus, poem 4, the 'Versus Platonis de deo') and one in Greek by the famous neoplatonic philosopher, Proclus (hymn 4).

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Sixth- and Seventh-Century Elephant Ivory Finds from the Carpathian Basin •

The Sources, Circulation and Value of Ivory in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Elefántcsonttárgyak A 6–7. Századi Kárpát-Medencében

Az Elefántcsont Forrása, Forgalma És Értéke A Késő Ókorban És A Kora Középkorban
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors: Ádám Bollók and István Koncz

központok az Avar Kaganátusban . Kecskemét , 211 – 248 . Bomgardner , David L . 2001 The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre . London–New York . Bowersock , Glen W . 2012 Empires in Collision in Late Antiquity . The Menahem Stern Jerusalem Lectures

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contribution I shall try to discuss some questions on the transformation of Roman identity in the territory of south-eastern Alps and the neighbouring regions, which in late Antiquity represented an area of transition, migration, incursion, of arriving and

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The celebration of the lizard:

The iconography and iconology of a magic ritual against the evil forces

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Ciro Parodo

and festive themes, recurring only in Late Antiquity, and never totally standardized. In regard to illustrated calendars of the first type, concentrated in the 2 st half of the 2 nd c. AD, the months are represented through the images of the zodiac

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In 1950, a gold necklace was found by a local grave digger in the site called La Valleta del Valero, about 15km south-west of Llei da (Catalonia). The necklace deserved little attention in scientific literature; it has been repeatedly dated to 3 nd –2 nd centuries BC and related to Hellenistic influences in Spanish Iron Age luxury metalwork. The necklace finds its closest analogies in a small group of gold artefacts found in Central and Eastern Europe and dating to the first half of the 5 th century AD. Traces of almost identical necklaces with pin-shaped pendants have been found at Hochfelden (Lower Rhine, France), Untersiebenbrunn (Lower Austria), Kerč’ (Crimea, Ukraine), Bakodpuszta (county Bács-Kiskun, Hungary) and Biron (Charente-Maritime, France). The find from Valleta del Valero apperas to be one of the keys to the evaluation of the significance of the occurence of necklaces with pin-shaped pendants in such territories. Both its geographical location — in still Roman Tarraconensis — and its morphology show it to be a link between Untersiebenbrunn-Gospital’naja type necklaces and late Roman metalwork, posing a number of questions about production, distribution and symbolic value of luxury necklaces around the Mediterrane an basis and the barbarian world.

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This communication collects the Late Roman mausolea in Pannonia, contains an overview of the literature and suggests a division of the mausolea into three main groups.

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