The author describes the late Copper Age finds that were recovered during the digging of a cellar at Vác, among them an amphora, which was decorated with a realistic cattle head. According to the ornaments and the shape, the vessel can be dated from the middle phase of the Boleráz group and it stands without analogues among the zoomorphic representations of the Baden culture. Its uniqueness underlines that it was prepared not with a profane purpose: it must have had a specific role, it perhaps contained corn offering. The cattle head representation is also linked with the important role the animal played in the life of the Baden population.
This study investigates the relative chronology of the Late Copper Age Baden culture by analysing the pottery of the largest known cemeteries (Alsónémedi, Budakalász, Fonyód-Bézsenypuszta, Balatonlelle-Felső Gamász, Pilismarót-Basaharc and Mezőcsát-Hörcsögös). Altogether 611 ceramic finds from 253 graves were involved in the research. The results presented here are preliminary; all the known Baden cemeteries will be processed in the future.
Two of the most significant innovations of the fourth millennium BC were the invention of the wheel and of wheeled vehicles, which led to other major innovations during the Late Copper Age. Discussed here are the major milestones and advances in research on wheeled vehicles, problems of dating, and the issues relating to the actual place of the invention of wheeled vehicles as well as the fruitful collaboration between various analytical disciplines and archaeology concerned with the study of wheels and early wheeled vehicles.
I have collected the finds relating to wheels and wheeled vehicles. It would appear that the invention of the wheel and of wheeled conveyances occurred in different centres. Even though we are unable to date the creation of the very first vehicle to the year, it seems quite certain that wheeled vehicles appeared more or less simultaneously in several regions in the fourth millennium BC.
The aim of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the cadastral works of mounds in the central part of Tiszántúl (the region east of the Tisza River), taking the burial mounds of the Late Copper Age Yamnaya entity as a starting point. Theoretical and field research began around the beginning of the 19th century, and in the second half of the 20th century systematic site registration took place, mainly due to the so-called ‘Archaeological Sites of Hungary’ project. Later on national surveys and local initiatives were carried out, but they are of very different quality. In addition to the main characteristics and results of the creation of these cadastres, we also outline further scientific studies on mounds.
A Rákoscsaba – Major-hegy Dél lelőhelyen feltárt több korszakos régészeti lelőhelyen tizenegyezernél több meghatározható állatcsontmaradvány látott napvilágot. A tanulmány célja ezek vizsgálata az egykor hasonló ökológiai feltételek mellett létező települések állattartásának és húsfogyasztásának tükrében. A tanulmányban különös figyelmet kapnak a hasznosítási szokások, mortalitási profilok, illetve a főbb gazdasági haszonállatok megjelenési változatai.
Houses of the Baden culture at the Balatonőszöd — Temető dűlő site
. A large settlement of the Baden culture was unearthed on a coherent surface of 100000 square metres during excavations preceding the construction of the new track of highway M 7 at Balatonőszöd in 2001–2002. The Late Copper Age settlement stood on the bank of a lake and along a stream that ran into the lake. The remains of four buildings (house foundations, daub fragments and miniature house models) were uncovered from the classical phase of the culture. The buildings were overground wood-structure houses plastered with daub and raised on posts above the waterlogged territory. They could have profane and sacral functions as well.
The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.
In 1971, Borbála Maráz uncovered two Late Copper Age graves of the Bodrogkeresztúr culture during the site’s control excavation. The burials were provided with remarkable grave goods, such as gold jewellery and beads made from metamorphic schist.