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The surface charges on hematite, kaolinite and on kaolinite coated with hematite (kaolinite-hematite system) were measured and successfully described using the model (Four-Layer Model) developed by Bowden and co-workers (1977; 1980a; 1980b). The surface charge was also calculated theoretically, according to a computer program developed by Barrow (1987). Significant differences were pointed out for the surface properties of the three solids examined. Anion-specific adsorption was observed for hematite and kaolinite-hematite, and cation adsorption for kaolinite.

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Several nonlinear simulations of concrete and reinforced concrete slabs are performed using a layered model. Two Drucker-Prager criteria are employed to form a concrete plasticity model that is used for simulating the plastic yielding of layers. Moreover, an interaction with elastic Winkler-Pasternak subsoil model is considered for the case of a reinforced concrete foundation slab that is subjected to a concentrated loading force. All computations are done by the SIFEL solver using finite element method.

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Abstract  

Jäntti introduced a method to calculate the adsorption equilibrium by the measurement of the actual adsorbed amount at three times after a change of the gas pressure. He applied that method for gas/solid systems in which simple adsorption processes occur and for an infinite number of adsorption sites. In the present paper we discuss the case that the number of sites is decreasing with increasing coverage.

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A simple model of light diffuse reflectance in thin skin fruits is presented. The model is based in a semi-infinite two-layer geometry (skin and flesh) and introduces simplifications due to the fact that the first layer is very thin. The flesh is described in terms of the usual reduced scattering and absorption coefficients µs′ and µa but the skin is modeled by simple reflection (R), absorption (A) and transmission (T) coefficients. The problem of diffuse reflectance is thus reduced to the problem of determining the four constants µs′, µa, R and T. It is shown that the problem can be solved by using absolute reflectance and spatially resolved reflectance measurements simultaneously. The coefficients µs′ and µa are determined by the usual fit of the diffuse reflectance profile (photons re-emitted from the flesh far from the incidence point) to the diffusion approximation. The coefficients R and T are determined by a second fit involving the total reflectance profile (photons reemitted both from skin and flesh), the incident beam profile and the diffuse reflectance profile calculated according to the previously determined values of µs′ and µa. The anisotropy of the light re-emitted by the fruit can also be roughly compared with the Lambertian expected behavior. In order to test the model we have followed a population of 22 ‘Rocha’ pears along a period of two weeks. We have then performed the population averages along the time and checked the plausibility of the values obtained for µs′, µa, R and T according to the expected fruit physiological changes along ripening. The results show that all parameters are physically acceptable and evolve in time according to the expected fruit ripening physiology.

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Sorption behavior of Am(III) onto granite was investigated. The distribution coefficient (K d) of Am(III) onto granite was determined in the solution of which pH was ranged from 2.9 to 11.4 and ionic strength was set at 10−2 and 10−1. TheK d values were found to increase with increasing pH and with decreasing ionic strength. The obtained data were successfully analyzed by applying an electrical double layer model. The optimum parameter values of the double layer electrostatics and adsorption reactions were obtained, and the selective adsorption behavior of Am(III) onto the granite was discussed.

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A surface complexation model, the so-called diffuse double layer model (DLM), was used in the description of the multicomponent system consisting of Czech sodium bentonite SABENYL and synthetic granitic water spiked with233U(VI). The experimental data were evaluated and the characteristic parameters, e.g., the equilibrium constants of all the reactions considered, were obtained and used for the numerical simulation of sorption selectivity of the uranium in relation to the total carbonate concentration. The values of separation factors indicate that the selectivity of uranium sorption in such multicomponent systems can depend not only on the pH and composition of both phases, but also on the phase ratio and starting concentrations of participating components.

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The scavenging of UO2 2+ using 4-sulfonic calix[6]arene in the presence of a strong adsorbent was studied as a function of pH. The adsorbent selected was goethite because of its strong affinity for UO2 2+ and its abundance in natural soils. In order to understand the underlying chemistry of the scavenging process, the adsorption of UO2 2+ and 4-sulfonic calix[6]arene onto goethite, respectively, and the extraction of adsorbed UO2 2+ from goethite surface were modeled using the triple-layer model. The model well explained the pH dependence of the adsorption and extraction processes. This work showed that maximum extraction was obtained around pH 10.5 in the presence of 12g/l goethite in the case of a 1:3T U(VI):T calixareneratio.

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The stability behaviour of a thin-film superconductor under a localized release of thermal disturbance is investigated. Two-dimensional conjugate film/substrate conduction equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity of the film, and Joule heat are employed to investigate effects of substrate and thermal properties on the intrinsic stability and quenching recovery. To consider the thermal boundary resistance between film and substrate, an interfacial-layer model (ILM) with very low diffusivity and an acoustic mismatch model (AMM) are employed. Results show that the thermal boundary resistance influences strongly the intrinsic stability. Thermal boundary resistance increases intrinsic stability if the thermal conductivity of the substrate or the disturbance energy is large. Higher Biot numbers and thermal conductivity ratios of film to substrate in longitudinal direction influence stability favorably. We demonstrate also that operation of a film/substrate system, such as YBCO/MgO, is either intrinsically stable or irrecoverably unstable.

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The amphoteric acid-base behavior of hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) was investigated by titrating HZO with 0.05M HNO3 and NaOH at constant ionic strength. The sorption of strontium from 0.05M NaNO3 solution was measured as a function of pH. Abrupt increase in sorption was observed at the equilibrium pH of 9. The experimental titration and strontium sorption data on HZO were evaluated using the constant capacitance model (CCM) and diffuse double layer model (DLM). Various model parameters of Surface Complexation Models (SCM) were estimated, numerically, by non-linear regression. Modeling the sorption and speciation of Sr2+ on HZO indicated that the hydrolysis of Sr2+ to lower charged SrOH+ is the pre-requisite for the abrupt sorption behavior at pH 9.

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This five-layered model consisting of 180 neurons is aimed at simulating some elementary functions of primary visual cortex of mammals in form detection. Its main achievements are: 1. Detection of points, lines, simple geometric figures in the V1 2. Abstraction of 19 different qualities of geometric figures 3. Simulation and rational explanation of processing of peripheral stimuli in the V1, explanation of mechanism of origin of visual ERPs, including P300 wave 4. Simulation and explanation of the nature and build up of the cognitive function within V1 and its possible relation to long-term memory 5. The model is based partly on Hebb-type synapses, illustrates the role of neuronal assemblies, sheds light on the functional relationship of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, in their conformity with special tasks of different cortical layers.

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