Authors:A. Zehhaf, A. Benyoucef, R. Berenguer, C. Quijada, S. Taleb, and E. Morallon
As a result of their numerous uses, lead can pollute water and soils, producing a serious environmental problem. Several methods have been developed for the removal of these metal ions present in industrial
Authors:Marina Stamenkovic-Radak, P. Kalajdzic, Tatjana Savic, Marija Savic, Zorana Kurbalija, Gordana Rasic, and M. Andjelkovic
structure of populations: Effects on allozymes. In: Forbes, V. E. (ed.)
Genetics and Ecotoxicology
. Taylor and Francis, pp. 55–77.
Graham, J. H., Roe, K. E., West, T. B. (1993) Effects of lead and benzene on the
Authors:S. Miley, R. Payne, S. Schulte, and Erin Finn
Radiation detectors used to search for the existence of exceptionally rare phenomena, such as double-beta decay and dark matter
interactions, as well as tiny traces of environmental radioactivity, require the elimination of background signals. Modern
detection systems created from ultra pure materials and operated deep underground may be sensitive enough to “see” these rare
phenomena, but background activity in Pb gamma-ray shielding could still be a critical stumbling block owing to alpha and
beta emissions of Pb, Bi, and Po in the mass 210 chain. To minimize the probability of overwhelming activity from Pb, the
alpha activity of 210Pb is quantified. However, a reliable quantification procedure that does not require large volumes of chemicals has not yet
been established. Two procedures created for this purpose have been tested for the quantification of alpha activity in lead.
Both procedures were designed to start with less than 10 g Pb samples to reduce reagents needed and combined precipitation
with column separation to isolate 210Pb, followed by alpha spectrometry. One procedure shows promise for obtaining high recoveries and good separation.
Authors:Miguel Salas-Luevano, Eduardo Manzanares-Acuña, Consuelo Letechipia-de Leon, Víctor Hernandez-Davila, and Hector Vega-Carrillo
Lead concentration in soils has been measured in Vetagrande, an old mining town located at the state of Zacatecas in México.
Eighty nine soils samples were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. The lead concentrations were treated with
the Kriging method in order to estimate the lead concentration distribution in the studied area. Pb levels in soils were from
8 to 7730 μg kg−1, where 28.1% of soil samples have less than 400 μg kg−1, 71.9% is above 400 μg kg−1 which is the maximum level recommended by the EPA for residential use of soil. Lead concentration measured around public
sites represent a risk of lead intake in the population.
Authors:A. Plionis, S. Garcia, E. Gonzales, D. Porterfield, and D. Peterson
Lead is a hazardous substance, making it a disposal and industrial hygiene problem. The potential for creating mixed waste
or mixed TRU waste exists if the lead becomes contaminated. The disposal of either waste stream is extremely difficult and
costly. Bismuth is a non-hazardous material with shielding characteristics similar to lead. An HPGe was characterized using
detector shielding composed of lead and polyethylene-based-bismuth to compare the shielding efficacy of both materials. Polymer-bismuth
bricks may be recommended as gamma spectrometer shielding for sensitive low-energy measurements.
Authors:Anita Lukács, Zsuzsanna Lengyel, L. Institóris, and Andrea Szabó
Araki, S., Sato, H., Yokoyama, K., Murata, K. (2000) Subclinical neurophysiological effects of lead: A review on peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system effects in lead workers.
Am. J. Ind. Med. 37
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and bentonite (B)/zeolite (Z)-PAN composites were prepared by direct polymerization of acrylonitrile
(AN) and AN adsorbed onto B and Z. PAN and the composites were subjected to amidoximation procedure to obtain polyacrylamidoxime
(PAO), B-PAO and Z-PAO compositions. The structural features were evaluated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. The adsorption
dependency of the materials on ion concentration, temperature and time were investigated for Pb2+ and UO22+. The adsorption capacities of B/Z-PAO composites were higher than those of pure PAO. The values of enthalpy and entropy changes
were positive. The kinetics of the adsorption was well defined by the pseudo second order rate model. For the use of 1 M HCl
as a regenerative effluent, the composites were reusable for five sequential treatments without any change in their structures
whereas PAO completely gelled in the first use.