The activities of the UN Security Council after the 11 September attacks provided subject for an extensive theoretic debate on the ongoing ‘transformation’ of international law. Whether and how much international terrorism constitutes a new (legal) threat and whether the current system of international law is appropriate to respond to these threats, has been analysed in many studies.However, another aspect also deserves an in-depth examination; two resolutions of the UN Security Council [1373 (2001) and 1540(2004)] imposing general-abstract legal obligations, including the obligation to adopt certain domestic legal norms, for all the member States of the UN. That is to say, for the first time, the Security Council assumed legislative powers, practically, for the whole membership. Nevertheless, so far the adoption of legislative measures remained rather exceptional, the issue shall not be left ignored. The study focuses on the basic question, namely whether the Security Council has the power to adopt legislative measures-on the established basis of the notion of ‘legislation’.
This paper focuses on the theoretical grounds of supermajority, its special relevance in parliamentary systems and the related experiences from Central and Eastern Europe, especially Hungary.
In parliamentary systems, the support of the parliamentary majority is a necessity and sufficient condition for governance – there is no need for supermajoritarian decision-making in issues of daily politics. A qualified majority has a different function and is an internal institutional limit of the legislative power – protecting the minority interests against the unilateral decisions of the majority in the most important issues of the political community.
The Hungarian situation from 2010–2015 demonstrates that minorities cannot influence the decisions where the supermajority represents a one-party opinion. Moreover, decisions of the supermajority can block future modifications of the future parliamentary majority as well. It will be argued in this paper that only a substantive approach to supermajority can support its basic function.
Public administration in Slovakia since 1990 has under constant change and is related to the ongoing transitions and unstable political environment after the fall of the former regime. Political, professional intervention and interference, an absence of long-term vision in public administration, has resulted in chaos and despite the advice of experts created a constant cycle of problems from which other transforming countries should learn from. After more than 25 years of transformation Slovakia can boast about partial successes even in public administration. It has not only become a memento of mistakes but also an example of successful implementations of reforms, particularly in the area of decentralization of public administration.
Authors:Peter Kapalo, Florin Domnita, and Jan Lojkovics
The aim of the paper is to determine a methodology for calculating the needed airflow rate (including fresh air) in an occupied room, based on carbon dioxide measurement and calculation, in order to maintain the comfort indoor air quality. The calculated airflow rate should optimize the investment and the operating costs of HVAC equipment. In the work there are analyzed the calculation methods used to determine the ventilation airflow rate. It is presented the methodology for calculating the ventilation airflow rate for a room with people inside by using the measured values of carbon dioxide concentration. The connection between carbon dioxide concentration and ventilation airflow rate is verified by experimental measurements. This methodology is applicable in Slovakia because it complies with all current standards. The result obtained by using this calculation method is almost the same with that achieved from experimental measurements. To confirm the results, it is presented a case study of an office with occupants, in which the ventilation airflow rate calculation method is applied.In the article only a part from the total work is presented. The experimental measurements were carried out from 2011 to 2014. Approximately 54 measurements were covering total days or weeks. The following factors have been measured: indoor air temperature, outdoor air temperature, relative humidity of indoor air, relative humidity of outdoor air, concentration of CO2 in indoor air, concentration of CO2 in outdoor air, pressure difference and wind velocity. Ventilation by infiltration was calculated based on these factors using several methodologies. The methodology of measurement is not subject to the article. In this article only one aspect is investigated: CO2 concentration.
Authors:Ruzena Kralikova, Miroslav Badida, and Jozef Olexa
batteries and accumulators containing certain dange-rous substances, Official Journal L 078, 26/03/1991
Legislative resolution on the proposal for a decision of the 91/157/EEC (5694/5/2005-C6-0268/2005-2003/0282(COD)), European
, certain common points are identifiable among the various approaches. Qualified law is a constitutionally prescribed subcategory of laws which covers - at least in theory - the most crucial legislative fields, and which is subject to stricter procedural
responses become important.
The review is an excellent starting place for policy discussions ( Király et al., 2018 ). When most people consider policy, however, they tend to focus primarily on governmental and legislative approaches. Although these
, C. P. – Miller , A. D. ( 2010 ): A measure of bizarreness . Quarterly Journal of Political Science 5 : 27 – 44 . Chambers , C. P. – Miller , A. D. ( 2013 ): Measuring legislative boundaries . Mathematical Social Sciences 66 ( 3
had commissioned the New Psychoactive Substances Review Expert Panel ( 2014 ) to scrutinize the existing legislative approach and make recommendations for ways forward, which they duly did. It is noteworthy that, from its title through to its content