The residual waste has a high concentration of recoverable elements, which can be either recycled or recovered into energy in accordance with the waste hierarchy. One option is the implementation of mechanical biological treatment of waste, which has showed a steady progress in the recent two years in Hungary.
This paper analysis the relevant factors, which should be considered during the technology planning. The multi criteria analysis involves the economical environmental and external considerations into the technology assessment. Based on the results, the technology plan should be revised and adjusted.
Authors:I. Fazekas, Gy. Szabó, Sz. Szabó, M. Paládi, G. Szabó, T. Buday, Z. Túri, and A. Kerényi
The aim of our report is to refer on the actual state of small biogas power plants in Hungary summarising the increase in their number and capacity and their effects on climatic change. The above is based on the CO2 emission of the energetic utilization of biogas and the calculation of its ecological footprint that were compared to the environmental effects of natural gas energetic utilization. The aim of this paper does not include the complete life cycle analysis therefore the environmental benefits of the energetic utilization of biogas produced from various raw material are presented via only the direct CO2 emission of the production process.
The food industry is in the crossfire of increasing pressure of competition, consumer demands, and growing importance of ecological sustainability considerations. Life cycle analysis is one of the most important methods for evaluation of environmental effects of food industrial technologies and packaging systems. During the last decades there have been an intense work to collect pieces of information on different environmental aspects of food packaging systems all over the world, but there is a considerable gap between the amount of knowledge and its practical application in decision making on the level of enterprises as well as in the process of determination of environmental protection fee. Application of modern, freely available software frameworks for life cycle analysis offers a favourable possibility for integration of environmental information into managerial and governmental decision making processes. Based on case studies, the article demonstrates the possibilities of utilisation of cumulative environmental burden indicators as well as expert decision-support systems for optimisation of product-portfolio, based on environmental considerations.
Persistent organic pollutants are either deliberately produced substances by the industry for a wide range of applications or occurred as byproducts from various activities, such as industrial or combustion processes. Despite a considerable decrease in POP levels during the last decades, unintentional production and accumulation of these substances still occur, mostly due to uncontrolled combustion processes, the lack of life cycle assessment and long-range transboundary air pollution. Remediation methods (mostly phytoremediation) are being developed in order to reduce POPs in the environment, but there are some legal obstacles of certain methods involving the application of transgenic plants, which might offer a fairly fast solution, provided that the precautionary principle is not compromised. The proper life-cycle analysis of industrial products, the combination of bio-energy crop production, constructed wetlands, reed-beds and phytoremediation resulting in complete agro-ecocycles, may constitute the basis of a sustainable, poison-free society. Sweden has the strictest and most comprehensive environmental legislation in Europe. The Swedish Government commissioned the Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate jointly with the Swedish Environment Protection Agency to prepare a national implementation plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The ecocyclemodel should provide the most suitable solution for reducing the level of POPs or eliminating these substances from the environment.