The Lithuanian “baladeacutes” should be held to be narrative lyrics. Because of a strong lyrical trend in Lithuanian folk poetry, very often they seem to be cases between folksongs and folkballads. An attempt to explain the untragic nature of part of Lithuanian ballad-sujets is done in the article. The cause could be not only the lyrical mood of folk singers or the lack of epic as well as dramatic traditions in Lithuanian singing folklore, but on the great part the answer may be found in the medium those foreign sujets got in. In the oldest strata of Lithuanian ballads the role of mythology is of great importance, the archaic conception of death and love. It is the avoidance of rude cruelty in Lithuanian ballads that causes the absence of certain parts; the structure of sujet becomes obscure, and the inner logic of sujet is ruled out. Dramatical manner of performance is present only sometimes, but not always in Lithuanian ballads. The expression of the individual; traditional occasions to perform ballads; some poetical artificies of Lithuanian ballads; suppositional meaning of some ballads motifs; the classification of Lithuanian ballads as well as their origin is also reviewed shortly in the article.
This article analyses the image
of Hungarians in Lithuanian customs of masking and oral folklore. The views of
Lithuanians about this nation will be examined as they are reflected in the
19th and the first half of the 20th century in Lithuanian folklore.
A variety of names are traditionally used to refer to the literary language as cultivated by the Belarusians and Ukrainians in the late Middle Ages. It is maintained that the emergence of the term prostaja mova/prostyj jazykъ was brought about by the (German) Reformation in the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Based on a comparative analysis of the names of the prostaja mova attested in Ruthenian, Polish, and Lithuanian writings, the author surmises that the coinage and the use of the corresponding terms was primarily determined by the revival of the indigenous “linguistic democratism” dating back to the time of Constantine and Methodius.
Commission, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, 2005 ). The education policy of Lithuania also pays great attention not only to the learning of children's native language, but also to the early learning of a foreign language and the
REFERENCES Aničas Jonas : Petras Vileišis 1851 – 1926 . Vilnius : Alma littera , 2001 . Aušra ir lietuvių visuomeninis judėjimas XIX amžiaus pabaigoje [Aušra and the Lithuanian social movement at the end of the 19th century] . Vilnius
Transparency International Lietuvos Skyrius (2009): Diagnostinis Tyrimas Lietuvos Korupcijos Žemėlapis. 2008 [Diagnostic Research Lithuanian Map of Corruption. 2008]. Accessed at:
The biggest impact on the development of Lithuanian terminology was made by Stasys Šalkauskis' work Terminologijos teorija ir lietuviškoji filosofijos terminija (Terminological theory and Lithuanian terminology of philosophy) published in parts between 1925 and 1934. In 1979, principles established by Šalkauskis were developed in Kazimieras Gaivenis' article Bendrieji lietuvių terminijos kūrimo ir norminimo principai (General principles of creation and normalization of Lithuanian terminology) and his book Lietuvių terminologija: teorijos ir tvarkybos metmenys (Lithuanian terminology: an outline of theory and ordering) (2002). Ten principles of the creation and normalization of Lithuanian terminology suggested by Šalkauskis and Gaivenis essentially did not change – they still are applicable. More significant changes are noticeable in the scope and methods of practical terminology work.
The paper presents a piece of results from the research “Perspectives of Restorative Justice in Lithuania”, which has been conducted by the Law Institute of Lithuania and has been funded by the Research Council of
The northeastern Lithuanian vocal sutartines feature a great diversity in their polyphonic structure: they vary in texture (polyphonic and heterophonic), modal structure (polymodal and monomodal), and rhythm (polyrhythmic and homorhythmic). Since the prevailing melodic style of sutartines is mixed rather than homogeneous, it is probable that these polyphonic songs originally evolved through the interaction of different folk music styles. Most of polyphonic sutartines, according to Latvian and Lithuanian ethnomusicologists, were composed by juxtaposing monophonic melodies. This was proved by comparing the melodic structure of sutartines with that of the monophonic melodies from the adjacent regions.Such characteristics of sutartines as polymodality, cannot be fully explained in regard to the development of vocal melodies. This leads to an admission that vocal sutartines underwent a considerable melodic influence of instrumental music. The polyphonic polymodal sutartines have probably derived from the process of playing the two daudytes rather than singing. The polymodality could have resulted from the performance on two daudytes of different length. Historical sources provide us with evidence that earlier the tradition of performing daudytes was highly significant. Thus it appears that the influence of instrumental music on modal structure of vocal sutartines was much more considerable than it was generally thought.
Beliūnienė , L.
et alia (ed.), The Most Relevant Problems of Ensuring of Human Rights in Lithuania 2008-2013: A Legal Research, Researches of the Law Institute of Lithuania (Law Institute of Lithuania 2014