Saint Margaret (1240–1270) princess of the House of Árpád was seldom represented in mediaeval Hungary. She enjoyed popularity in Italy and due to a misconception she was represented there with stigmas, and numerous images of her stigmatisation – unknown in Hungary – have come down to us. Hungarian scholarly research has explored the literary and artistic sources regarding the emergence, development and decline of the topic, and has collected the images. The development of the iconography was examined parallel with that of Saint Catherine of Siena. The author of this paper have presented the development of the theme that begun with Giotto’s vision of Saint Francis with the seraphs set in the Assisi landscape, to the images of Catherine and Margaret receiving the stigmata from a crucifix in a sacred space. This paper believes the iconography reached the height of its development in an engraving previously unlinked with the imagery (Milan, Castello Sforzesco, Raccolta Grafiche. Art. prez. P. 425). In this picture, a composition evocative of the Crucifixion, the two saints receive their stigmata direct from the crucified Christ on the Mount Golgotha. The author supposes that, that the print is thought to have been commissioned by the Visconti- Sforza family or the friers of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. Finally, the author of this paper examines a panel of Juan de Borgoña (Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado ). The panel represents three saints. One among them is Saint Margaret, with the stigmata. The with five lilys decorated wounds, was attributes of Blessed Helen of Hungary, who was regarded as the Magistra of Margaret.
This paper investigates some features of the technical legal terms in Leges Langobardorum. Rothair’s Edict was the first written codification of the Lombard customary law. The passage into writing, the writers’ choice of Latin and the use of Roman law texts as sources and models play an important role in determining the features of their legal vocabulary. Within this perspective, the specialized lexemes of Lombard Laws, the use of terms in ordinary and technical meanings and the polysemy and monoreferentiality of legal terminology are discussed.
In this paper, our aim is to show the different ways of language evolution through examples of conditional mode morphology in various Romance languages: unsuccessful solutions that remain isolated and die out, local ones that will not expand far off the centre of the innovation, and `mainstream' ones that, for one reason or other, affect a large number of related languages or dialects. The article focuses on medieval Northern Italian dialects, mainly 14th century Lombard where the three ways coexisted.
The Author turns back to a dating of the Tomb of St. Marguerite, represented by numerous fragments found on site in the ruins of the Dominican Nuns'convent on the Danube Island near Buda, to the late 13th century, about the middle of the 1270ies. He returns to the main source, to the witness by the Vicar Michael OFP in 1276 in the canonisation process of the Saint, about the work by the Lombards Albert and Peter. He rejects the thesis about the attribution to a Neapolitan follower of Tino di Camaino, accepted by actual Hungarian art history, and proposes a comparison with followers of Nicola Pisano, mainly Arnolfo di Cambio. The Lombardian stylistic characteristics of the marble fragments of Buda are compared with works by Fra Guglielmo and with Genuese works of the Campionesi.
This paper aims to examine some aspects of the verbal inflectional endings found in a corpus of 9th-century legal documents produced in the Lombard duchy of Salerno, in the South of Italy. Compared to nominal inflection, verbal inflection endings display a stronger continuity with the Latin of previous stages. Nevertheless, different types of innovations are observable. On the basis of data from present indicative and subjunctive, two of them will be analysed: 1) innovative forms explicable in terms of well-known morpho-phonological processes and showing convergence with the Romance outcomes 2) innovative variants, that can be interpreted in different ways, diverging both from previous stages of the Latin and from the Romance outcomes. To interpret both these kinds of variation, a crucial role is played by external factors such as the cultural level of the authors of the documents and their capability to conform to the traditional linguistic models.
Tanulmányomban a templomhomlokzat és az oltárépítmény felépítésének, tagoló rendszerének párhuzamaira kívántam felhívni a figyelmet. Mind a homlokzatoknak, mind az oltárarchitektúráknak a tervezői építészek voltak, így természetes, hogy hasonló motívumokat használtak fel mind a két esetben. A tridenti zsinat utáni katolikus megújulás fontos szereplője, Borromei Szent Károly, új tabernákulumformát és tértípust hozott létre a lombard építész, Pellegrino Tibaldi közreműködésével. Pellegrinónak kulcsszerepe volt a jezsuita templomtípus megteremtésében, tervei nyomán nem csupán Milánóban, hanem Torinóban is épült templom; hatása kimutatható a bécsi domonkos templom homlokzatán is, amelynek építésze, a bissonei Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla családjának több tagja révén közvetíthette Magyarországra az itáliai hatást. Az építészek, mint például a bécsi Kirche am Hof tervezője, a luganói Filiberto Lucchese, maguk is terveztek oltárokat, vagy közreműködtek a stukkátorokkal, akik gyakran ugyanabból a régióból érkeztek, mint a tervező építész. Így fordulhatott elő, hogy a nyugat-dunántúli stukkóoltárokat általában észak-itáliai mesterek készítették a templomhomlokzatok nyomán.
Summary. This study proposes to re-examine the dynamic interaction between the frontispiece of the church and the high altar. While the façade often functions as an open-air altarpiece, the altar itself is a “gate of Paradise.” Both the frontispieces and the altar structures were designed by architects, consequently, they use similar motives. Carlo Borromeo, as a key-figure of post-tridentine church reformed the sacred space and the tabernacle of the Cathedral in Milan following the designs of Pellegrino Tibaldi. Pellegrino played an eminent role in creating a new Jesuit church-type in San Fedele, Milan, which served as a model for the Corpus Christi basilica in Torino as well as for the Santa Maria Dominican Church in Vienna. The latter one was planned by Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Bissone (Lugano), and from the same family stemmed well-known stuccators and painters, who also worked for Hungarian commissioners. The architect of the Jesuit church Kirche am Hof in Vienna, Filiberto Lucchese, also worked for the Batthyány family, and designed altarpieces. In this way, we are able to establish a strong interaction between the altar-structure and façade, bringing considerable novelty in analysing architectural forms and design.