Authors:Alan K. Davis, Joseph P. Barsuglia, Austin-Marley Windham-Herman, Marta Lynch, and Martin Polanco
Background and aims
Very few studies have reported the effectiveness of ibogaine as a treatment for chronic opioid use. Therefore, this study evaluated the acute subjective effects of ibogaine, outcomes on problematic opioid consumption, and the long-term associations with psychological functioning.
Using online data collection, 88 patients who received ibogaine treatment in Mexico between 2012 and 2015 completed our survey.
Most participants (72%) had used opioids for at least 4 years and 69% reported daily use. Most (80%) indicated that ibogaine eliminated or drastically reduced withdrawal symptoms. Fifty percent reported that ibogaine reduced opioid craving, some (25%) reporting a reduction in craving lasting at least 3 months. Thirty percent of participants reported never using opioids again following ibogaine treatment. And over one half (54%) of these abstainers had been abstinent for at least 1 year, with 31% abstinent for at least 2 years. At the time of survey, 41% of all participants reported sustained abstinence (>6 months). Although 70% of the total sample reported a relapse following treatment, 48% reported decreased use from pretreatment levels and an additional 11% eventually achieved abstinence. Treatment responders had the lowest rates of depressive and anxious symptoms, the highest levels of subjective well-being and rated their ibogaine treatment as more spiritually meaningful compared with treatment non-responders.
The results suggest that ibogaine is associated with reductions in opioid use, including complete abstinence, and has long-term positive psychological outcomes. Future research should investigate the efficacy of ibogaine treatment using rigorous longitudinal and controlled designs.
The mite fauna of bulbaceous
ornamental plants in Ankara, Turkey was investigated during 2000-2002. A total of 12 astigmatid species belonging to 6 genera
and 13 prostigmatid species belonging to 12 genera were identified. The pest
potential of Rhgizoglyophus, Acarus and Tyrophagus spp. is considered and it
was concluded that Rhizoglyphus robini (Claparéde) is the most common and harmful mite species occurring on
bulbs of ornamental plants throughout the growing season and in storage. Acarus
farris (Oudemans) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) were also abundant on
bulbs. Hypopicheyla elongata Volgin (Cheyletidae) and Anoplocheylus taurcicus
Berlese (Pseudocheylidae), and the astigmatid Tyrophagus robertsonae Lynch, 1989
(Tyroglyphidae) are new records for the Turkish fauna. Astigmatid species
prefer bulbaceous plants and prostigmatids occasionally occur on the same host
plants. Dahlia hybrida was the preferred and most populated bulbaceous host