Authors:Judith Pöppe, Katrin Bote, Roswitha Merle, Olga Makarova, and Uwe Roesler
pathogenic bacteria surviving in the intestine, depending on the sensitivity to glyphosate. Regarding a ruminal setting, these findings could not be confirmed [ 19 ]. Shehata et al. [ 20 ] determined differing minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for
Authors:Seyedeh Marzieh Jabbari Shiadeh, Leila Azimi, Taher Azimi, Ali Pourmohammad, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahare Gholami Chaboki, and Ali Hashemi
Concentrations (MICs) of different antimicrobials and the expression of efrAB genes in ciprofloxacin resistant E.faecalis strains by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we chose more resistant isolates for typing by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST
Authors:Nilgün Ünal, Erhan Bal, Alper Karagöz, Belgin Altun, and Nadir Koçak
(30 μg) (Oxoid, USA). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by gradient test for vancomycin and teicoplanin (bioMérieux, France) ( Table 1 ). The Enterococcus strains were considered resistant if the MIC values of vancomycin
Authors:I. Biksi, Andrea Major, L. Fodor, and et al.
In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 12 Hungarian isolates and the type strain ATCC 33144 of Actinobaculum suis to different antimicrobial compounds was determined both by the agar dilution and by the disc diffusion method. By agar dilution, MIC50 values in the range of 0.05-3.125µg/ml were determined for penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tylosin, pleuromutilins, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and lincomycin. The MIC50 value of oxytetracycline and spectinomycin was 6.25 and 12.5µg/ml, respectively. For ofloxacin, flumequine, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim MIC50 values were in the range of 25-100µg/ml. With the disc diffusion method, all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins examined, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, tetracyclines examined, pleuromutilins, lincomycin and tylosin. Variable sensitivity was observed for fluoroquinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin), most of the strains were susceptible to marbofloxacin. Almost all strains were resistant to aminoglycosides but most of them were sensitive to spectinomycin. A strong correlation was determined for disc diffusion and MIC results (Spearman's rho 0.789, p<0001). MIC values of the type strain and MIC50 values of other tested strains did not differ significantly. Few strains showed a partially distinct resistance pattern for erythromycin, lincomycin and ampicillin in both methods.
Authors:Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi, and Tibor Magyar
was tested to 18 antimicrobial agents using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips according to the manufacturer's instructions (Liofilchem, Roseto, Italy; Table 2 ). Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 served as a quality control strain. MIC
Authors:Ágoston Ghidán, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Orsolya Dobay, Károly Nagy, Sebastian Amyes, and Ferenc Rozgonyi
The presence of the
gene was determined in enterococci from healthy poultry, originating from the Hungarian resistance monitoring system between 2001 and 2004. Enterococci (n = 562) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered broiler chickens. The presence of
genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains carried only the
gene. Genus- and species-level identification of the
gene carrier strains was carried out by PCR using specific primers. In 2001, 25 out of the 289 isolated strains (8.6%) were
). In 2002 (n = 87), 20 (23%) strains were
). In 2003 and 2004, none of the strains (n = 95 and 91, respectively) were positive for the most common
genes. In 2003, there was only one strain for which higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin (4 mg/L) and teicoplanin (8 mg/L) were found. In 2004 there were three strains for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 mg/L, and 2 strains and 1 strain with teicoplanin MICs of 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The potential similarity of these strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The VRE strains were not closely related to one another. The annual data of vancomycin resistance indicate an association between the recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the use of avoparcin in animal feeds. This study indicates that with the reduced use of antibiotics in food animals, it is possible to decrease the rate of resistant bacteria. Although the use of avoparcin had been banned in 1998, the VRE strains disappeared only five years later.
The emergence of large fortifications at the beginning of Early Iron Age reflects a change in settlements system. The current paper studies settlement sites along with metal finds, graves and graveyards from Late Bronze Age cultures to Early Iron Age/Hallstatt period in the Transylvanian Plateau.Our aim is to investigate the transformations and the dynamics of the settlements through cartographic documents and data relating to the landscape around the sites (using satellite images, aerial photographs and geophysical measurements) stored in a geographic information system.Modeling the territories of central Transylvanian prehistoric communities provides information about the division of space and possible land use strategies. The research is also based on the existing macro-regional palaeo-environmental data of Central North-Western Romania.We can state that the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age chiefdoms form peer polities controlling small territories along single or more valleys. Our approach represents the actual stage of research of the subject; the future field researches will bring new concluding evidence in this matter.
Authors:I. K. Bedaida, S.H.D. Masry, B. Mamache, M.G. Shehata, L. Benammar, and A. Ayachi
, Egypt. 1.2 Microorganism Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was carried out on two reference strains, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus aureus NTCC 10766, and one clinically isolated methicillin resistant
Authors:Isabel Stephany-Brassesco, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M. Heimesaat, and Matthias F. Melzig
– University Medicine Berlin).
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all three agents were determined using the serial microdilution method. Each MIC determination plate provided 7 repetitions, and 6 plates were incubated for each agent. The
Authors:Khabat Noori Hussein, Tímea Molnár, Richard Pinter, Adrienn Toth, Emna Ayari, Laszlo Friedrich, Istvan Dalmadi, and Gabriella Kiskó
active components ( Semeniuc et al., 2017 ). Based on these, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined. Resazurin solution was made by dissolving 0.025 g of resazurin in 1 mL of sterile distilled water. This was then added to a pre