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Authors: Sulaiman Riza, Djasmir Marlinawati and Mohamad Amran Mohd Fahmi

Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.

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1109 1119 Sookhoo, S., MacKinnon, I., Bushby, K. és mtsai: MRI for the demonstration of subclinical muscle involvement in muscular dystrophy. Clin. Radiol., 2007

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Authors: Pál Jakusch, Tímea Kocsis, Ilona Kovácsné Székely and István Gábor Hatvani

. 2. Adriaensen , H. , Musse , M. , Quellec , S. , Vignaud , A. , Cambert , M. , Mariette , F. ( 2013 ) MSE-MRI sequence optimisation for measurement of bi- and tri-exponential T2

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Pongratz, M. C., Kircher, P., Lang, J., Hilbe, M. and Wehril Eser, M. (2010): Diagnostic evaluation of a foal with cerebellar abiotrophy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pferdeheilkunde 26 , 559–662. Wehril

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2160 Kádár K., Tóth A., Simor T. és mtsai: Jobb és bal kamra functio vizsgálata Echo/MRI-vel FIV műtétje után gyermekekben. Cardiol. Hung., 2006, 36 , A29

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Authors: László Z. Reinitz, Gábor Bajzik, Rita Garamvölgyi, Bianka Benedek, Örs Petneházy, András Lassó, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Borbála Lőrincz and Péter Sótonyi

. , Patterson , J. , Bone , I. and Teasdale , G. ( 1987 ): Human cranial CSF volumes measured by MRI: sex and age influences . Magn. Reson. Imaging 5 , 465 – 468 . Harris , N

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Authors: Borbála A. Lorincz, Agustina Anson, Péter Csébi, Gábor Bajzik, Gergely Biró, Alexander Tichy, Balázs B. Lorincz and Rita Garamvölgyi

. ( 2000 ): T2 relaxometry can lateralize mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in patients with normal MRI . Neuroimage 12 , 739 – 746 . Brini , E. , Gandini , G. , Crescio , I. , Fatzer

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Authors: Kálmán Czeibert, Attila Andics, Örs Petneházy and Enikő Kubinyi

former ones usually provide cross sections from a specimen or use of macroscopic structural imaging methods [e.g., computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] ( Böttcher et al., 1999 ; Czeibert et al., 2019 ; Park et al., 2014 ; Schmidt

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Gyimes Zs, Pavlik G, Simor T: A comparison of cardiac parameters measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in different athletes (in Hungarian, abstract in English). Hung. Rev. Sports Med. 43, 68-81 (2002) A comparison of

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Authors: Jun Zhang, Kaimin Liu, Gengmei Xing, Tongxiang Ren and Shukuan Wang

Abstract  

Gd@C82(OH)40 has been developed as a new generation of MRI contrast agent. But recently, it was found that Gd@C82(OH)x with a larger number of OH (x>36) would lead to cage break and hence, release of highly toxic Gd ions. We synthesized the more stable Gd@C82(OH)x with less OH-number, Gd@C82(OH)16, and studied its proton relaxivity and MRI images. The results indicate that Gd@C82(OH)16 also gives high proton relaxivity, even higher than that of (NMG)2-Gd-DTPA. The bio-distribution indicated that Gd@C82(OH)16 tends to be entrapped in the liver and kidney and remained in tissue for about 2 hours. The results suggest that the more stable metallofullerene derivative Gd@C82(OH)16 can be the potential candidate of the new MRI contrast agent.

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