Authors:A. Marini, V. Berbenni, G. Bruni, A. Maggioni, and M. Villa
The heat capacity calibration ‘constants’ of a commercial MTDSC system (TA 3100) were determined in a variety of experimental
conditions. For a given modulation frequency, the calibration constants are the same within a few percents for different temperatures,
and over a wide range of modulation amplitudes and scan rates. This variation decreases below 1% if hidden instrumental constraints
are taken into account, which are related with the capability of the control system to achieve the desired temperature program.
On the other hand, the calibration constant changes substantially with the period, and takes anomalously high values for the
short modulation periods (20+40 s). Rules to optimize the accuracy of the system are given.
Authors:P. Royall, D. Craig, M. Reading, and T. Lever
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of modulating the temperature programme of a conventional DSC
by use of an alternating gas-flow system. Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) is an important
thermal analysis technique but suffers from a limited applicable frequency range due to the mass of the sample and DSC cell
leading to the impingement of thermal conductivity effects. We suggest that the frequency limit can be increased by replacing
the cell as the source of temperature modulation with an external gaseous source, directed towards the sample and reference
pans. In this evaluation, an alternating gas-flow was passed through a line to a forced gas-flow accessory (FGFA). The FGFA
consisted of two matched cylinders containing chambers that allowed pre-temperature-equilibration of the stream of gas before
it was passed over the sample and reference pans. The development of this device revealed the essential practical requirements
of gas-flow modulation for high-frequency temperature modulation. These include the following: an appropriately sealed tunable
gas supply to both sample and reference pans, an effective method for high-frequency cycling of the gas-flow rate, a small
aperture to deliver the flowing gas directly over the pan and a temperature equilibration chamber. The results from samples
of quenched PET and amorphous Saquinavir indicate that gas-flow modulation is indeed feasible, with the FGFA able to raise
the attainable temperature modulation frequency by an order of magnitude compared to conventional MTDSC.
Authors:N. A. Santos, R. Rosenhaim, M. B. Dantas, T. C. Bicudo, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro, I. M. G. Santos, and A. G. Souza
rheological properties of biodiesel obtained from babassu oil were analyzed as a function of temperature. The results were correlated with the behavior observed using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MT-DSC
Authors:I. MacDonald, S. Clarke, R. Pillar, M. Ginic-Markovic, and J. Matisons
Summary Modulated temperature DSC was investigated, comparing data found experimentally to that derived from theory. Deviation from theory was found with regard to the amplitude of the modulated heat flow signal when large modulation amplitudes were employed in the experiment. These deviations were determined to be dependent on the absolute temperature and it was concluded that further investigation of the heat flow signal obtained during MTDSC experiments is required.
Authors:Marius Ciprian Rusu, Christophe Block, Guy Van Assche, and Bruno Van Mele
comparison between experiments using nitrogen or air as purge gas. The thermal properties of photo-polymerized samples were studied by modulated temperature DSC (MTDSC). Complementary FT-IR measurements were carried out to evaluate the conversion of the
Authors:M. Mayo-Pedrosa, C. Alvarez-Lorenzo, and A. Concheiro
The miscibility of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and a cross-linked poly(acrylic
acid) (Carbopol 971P) was evaluated from the rheological data of aqueous dispersions and the temperature of glass transitions of films made
of binary mixtures. PNIPA has a low critical solubility temperature (LCST) of about 33C, below which 1% dispersion behaves
as a viscous system. At temperatures above LCST, the hydrophobic interactions among the isopropyl groups initially provide
transient networks of greater elasticity. The LCST of PNIPA as well as its Tg (144C, estimated by DSC and MTDSC of films) were not modified by the presence of PVP. The immiscibility of PNIPA and PVP
was confirmed by the absence of interaction between both polymers as shown by FTIR analysis of the films. In contrast, PNIPA
and carbopol were miscible and the behaviour of their mixtures differed significantly from that of the parent polymers; i.e.
a strong synergistic effect on the viscoelasticity of the dispersions was observed below the LCST. As temperature increased,
the blends showed a decrease in the loss and storage moduli, especially those with greater PNIPA proportions. The fall was
smoother as the PNIPA proportion decreased. This behaviour may be explained as the result of the balance between PNIPA/carbopol
hydrogen bonding interactions (as shown in the shift of C=O stretch in FTIR spectra) and PNIPA/PNIPA hydrophobic interactions.
The Tg values of the films of the blends showed a positive deviation from the additivity rule; the mixtures containing more than
1:1 amide:carboxylic acid groups have a notably high Tg (up to 181C). This increase is related to the stiffness induced in
the films by the PNIPA/carbopol interactions.
Authors:G. Mosselmans, Monique Biesemans, R. Willem, J. Wastiels, M. Leermakers, H. Rahier, S. Brughmans, and B. Van Mele
The reaction of phosphoric acid with wollastonite has been studied for reaction mixtures with a molar ratio r=P/Ca from 0.39 up to 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal the formation
of the crystalline products brushite (when r is smaller than 1.4) and monetite and calcium dihydrogenphosphate monohydrate (when r is above 1). Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) and FTIR show that amorphous silica is
also formed which contains some residual calcium and hydroxyl groups. The proposed reactions are confirmed by the evolution
of the reaction enthalpy measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reaction was monitored with temperature
modulated DSC (TMDSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The sharp increase of the elasticity modulus coincides with the
onset of decrease in heat capacity. The setting of the reaction mixture does not slow down the reaction rate.
transformations occurring simultaneously during heating. Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (mT-DSC) has attracted much interest since its development in 1992, because of its ability to distinguish apparent thermodynamic (reversing heat flow