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The paper aims to clarify the extent to which the results of scientific-oriented research conducted by corporations are reflected in their application-oriented research. Focusing on large Japanese manufacturers of electrical machinery, the paper analyses firm-level data on presentations of scientific papers that represent the results of scientific-oriented research activities, citations of scientific papers in patents, and inventions. The electrical machinery industry, a prototypical science-based industry, has been placing a growing emphasis on scientific-oriented research during the 1990's as is evident from trends in R&D expenses, scientific papers, and inventions. Regression analysis results suggest a complementary relationship between citations of basic scientific knowledge as presented in scientific papers on the one hand and acts of invention on the other hand, in the sense that a rise in citations corresponds to a rise in inventions. Moreover, the results suggest that invention efficiency (number of patent claims per unit of R&D expenditure) has been increasing during the 1990's. Furthermore, the results suggest that, given the exogenous influences on the patent system in Japan, it is necessary to include the number of patent claims when attempting to measure corporate technology development activity through the volume of patent applications. However, there was no finding of a clear relationship between the number of scientific papers and inventions. Implications of these results for corporate R&D strategy are examined.

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Gene expression is regulated at the critical steps: a regulatory event occurs at the step which has a criti- cal effect and is responsible for the limiting rate. Enzyme activity can be regulated at several different levels: transcriptional, translational or post-translational. In this review we describe (and illustrate with experimental data) plant stress which induces regulatory mechanisms at the translational and post-trans- lational levels. We found evidence for autorepression regulatory system of ferritin biosynthesis. Based on the knowl- edge of the molecular mechanism of regulation, we believe that ferritin protects the environment against heavy metal ions and supplements biological system(s) with iron. The quinolizidine alkaloids™ (QA) biosynthesis is lysine decarboxylase (LDC)-dependent. The avail- able pool of LDC limits the conversion of lysine to cadaverine. The amount of LDC depends on tran- scriptional and translational efficiency. However, in the light of the presented data, we have evidence for a post-translational regulatory system, i.e. the activation of LDC from low to high activity enzyme through the conversion from higher to lower molecular weight form. The plant protection system is very efficient. Understanding of the defence systems such as plant response to stress, should provide us with a possibility of applying this knowledge in practice and find- ing novel applications.

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The first known drawings of machines can be found in warfare-themed manuscripts. The oldest of them dates back to the 14th century, but their proliferation took place in the 15th century. During the century an almost standardized drawing style, vocabulary was developed, which also survived throughout the Renaissance.

Compared to the relatively high number of the survived warfare-related manuscripts that included drawings (their number is above 50), the representation of machines for civil usage is very rare throughout the century, even though the architectural drawings also proliferated during this century, and they also introduced a distinct representation style.

The survived portfolio of the Strasbourg master builder Hans Hammer lies at the intersection of this two disciplines: it includes both machine and architectural drawings in a large number. Given the occupation of the master, it can safely assumed that in contrast to those found in the majority of the contemporary machine drawings, his machines served civil purposes.

In this article the following questions are discussed: how do Hans Hammer’s machine drawings fit in the corpus of the contemporary machine drawings both by drawing style and function; and with which manuscripts can a direct connection be made?

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1 895 Hampsey, M.: Molecular genetics of the RNA polymerase II general transcriptional machinery. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62 , 465 (1998

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Barbara Kovács, Nikoletta Hegedűs, Mihály Bálint, Zsuzsa Szabó, Tamás Emri, Gréta Kiss, Miklós Antal, István Pócsi, and Éva Leiter

Yoromitsu, T., Klionsky, D.J.: Autophagy: Molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ 12 , 1542–1552 (2005). Klionsky DJ Autophagy: Molecular machinery for self

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: H. Sytykiewicz, P. Czerniewicz, Iwona Sprawka, Sylwia Goławska, G. Chrzanowski, and B. Leszczyński

2044 van der Hoorn, R. A. L., Jones, J. D. G. (2004) The plant proteolytic machinery and its role in defence. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 7 , 400

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Yorimitsu T, Klionsky DJ: Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ. 12Suppl 2, 1542–1552 (2005) Klionsky D.J. Autophagy: molecular machinery for self

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In the first part my purpose is to find existence conditions for a spin structure on a manifold in a purely differential geometric scope, without the machinery of the algebraic topology and avoiding systematically any matricial formalism.

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‘and values on which the Union is founded’. 10 Despite these attempts to integrate the Rule of Law concept into the overall EU’s supervisory machinery, the Commission’s and the Parliament’s submissions arguably indicate a lack of coherency in

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(+) Data In order to empirically analyze what contributes to each research collaboration mode, we used 14 years worth of publication data from the Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), a Korean government mechanical research institute

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