Authors:Rodrigo Costas, Thed van Leeuwen, and María Bordons
This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of
the production (1994–2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and
Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the
author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers’ co-authors but without his/her
participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual
or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not
change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been
found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of
author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown
self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those
in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication
process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering
self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect
Authors:Hamid Bouabid, Mohamed Dalimi, and Zayer ElMajid
aggregated to a meso-level: the group under observation and the institution.
We should emphasize that the main and only purpose of this evaluation was the research activities and patenting and did not include educational and expertise activities of
Authors:Jacqueline Leta, Wolfgang Glänzel, and Bart Thijs
In the present study a bibliometric meso-level analysis of Brazilian scientific research is conducted. Both sectoral and publication
profile of Brazilian universities and research institutions are studied. Publication dynamics and changing profiles allow
to the conclusion that powerful growth of science in Brazil goes with striking structural changes. By contrast, citation-based
indicators reflect less spectacular developments.
The paper deals with the development of the management system of regional policy in four countries (Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Romania). It presents the results and dilemmas concerning the creation of the territorial administration and the administrative meso-level, the special organs of regional policy and their interconnections with public administration. It also touches upon the emerging conflicts between the traditional institutions of democratic participation and publicity, and the new characteristics of the partnership networks. The presentation points out the decentralisation and modernisation challenges initiated by regional policy in the new member states in the light of European regional development strategy in the future and the domestic situation as well.
This study presents a general view of the scientific and technological production in the ICT sector in Spain during the period
1990-2002 and its relative weight in the international production, as well as the identification of the main institutional
actors and the performance patterns of the researchers in this scientific community through bibliometric techniques, with
the aim of exploring the character of its outputs, both in terms of publications and patents. Indicators at macro-meso level
are presented by: geographic regions, thematic areas at different aggregation levels, institutional sectors and research centres.
Bibliometric indicators may help focus attention on the position and contribution of Spanish ICT science and technological
We propose a semi-automatic method based on finite-state techniques for the unification of corporate source data, with potential
applications for bibliometric purposes. Bibliographic and citation databases have a well-known problem of inconsistency in
the data at micro-level and meso-level, affecting the quality of bibliometric searches and the evaluation of research performance.
The unification method applies parametrized finite-state graphs (P-FSG) and involves three stages: (1) breaking of corporate
source data in independent units of analysis; (2) creation of binary matrices; and (3) drawing finite-state graphs. This procedure
was tested on university departmental addresses, downloaded from the ISI Web of Science. Evaluation was in terms of an adaptation
of the measures of precision and recall. The results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach, though it requires some
Authors:András Schubert, Wolfgang Glänzel, and Bart Thijs
The discussion about how to treat author
self-citations driven by policy application and quality measurement intensified
in the last years. The definition introduced by Snyder and Bonzi has - in lack
of any reasonable alternative - been used in bibliometric practice for science
policy purposes. This method, however, does not take into account the weight of
self-citing authors among co-authors of both the cited and citing papers. The
objective of the present paper is to quantify the weight of self-citations with
respect to co-authorship. The analysis
is conducted at two levels: at the macro level, namely, for fifteen subject
fields and the most active forty countries, and at the meso level, for a set of
selected research institutions.
This contribution discusses basic technical-methodological issues with respect to data collection and the construction of bibliometric indicators, particularly at the macro or meso level. It focusses on the use of the Science Citation Index. Its aim is to highlight important decisions that have to be made in the process of data collection and the construction of bibliometric indicators. It illustrates differences in the methodologies applied by several important producers of bibliometric indicators: the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI); CHI Research, Inc.; the Information Science and Scientometrics Research Unit (ISSRU) at Budapest; and the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University (CWTS). The observations made in this paper illustrate the complexity of the process of standardisation of bibliometric indicators. Moreover, they provide possible explanations for divergence of results obtained in different studies. The paper concludes with a few general comments related to the need of standardisation in the field of bibliometrics.
Authors:Eszter Kovács, Erika Gulyás, and Tamás Sterbenz
This paper presents the initial results of a significant research conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Programme with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. A macroand meso-level analysis were conducted within the framework of this research; this paper presents the macro model, with the aim of capturing important features of the economic, political and institutional environments which affect the productivity of a nation’s sport performance and growth; with this the paper contributes to an understanding of the key elements of high-performance sport development. The macro model divides sport into two groups – individual and team sports – in order to determine if there are any differences at the macro level. The influence of the economic factors which were included in the models shows a decreasing effect on the market share of nations, which means that other factors must also play a significant role in a nation’s international sporting success. The responsibility of national sport governance will become even more important in elite sport success in the future, which shows that the efficient utilisation of recourses will also become a key factor, along with an appropriate structure, organisation and integrated coordination.
In earlier studies by the authors, basic regularities of author self-citations have been analysed. These regularities are
related to the ageing, to the relation between self-citations and foreign citations, to the interdependence of self-citations
with other bibliometric indicators and to the influence of co-authorship on self-citation behaviour. Although both national
and subject specific peculiarities influence the share of self-citations at the macro level, the authors came to the conclusion
that - at this level of aggregation - there is practically no need for excluding self-citations. The aim of the present study
is to answer the question in how far the influence of author self-citations on bibliometric meso-indicators deviates from
that at the macro level, and to what extent national reference standards can be used in bibliometric meso analyses. In order
to study the situation at the institutional level, a selection of twelve European universities representing different countries
and different research profiles have been made. The results show a quite complex situation at the meso-level, therefore we
suggest the usage of both indicators, including and excluding self-citations.