Authors:C.-C. Chiang, J.-C. Lee, Y.-M. Chang, C.-F. Chuang, and C.-M. Shu
Knowledge of material safety properties is critical for safe handing in the chemical process industries, especially for flammable
chemicals that might result in serious fires and explosions. This study investigated the flammability characteristics of methanol
under working conditions during the process. The targeted fire and explosion properties, like explosion limits (UEL and LEL),
vapor deflagration index (Kg), maximum explosion pressure (Pmax), and maximum explosion pressure rise [(dP dt−1)max], were deliberately obtained via a 20-L-Apparatus in 101 kPa (i.e., 760 mmHg/1 atm), 150 and 200 °C, along with various experimental
arrangements containing nitrogen (N2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) as inert component. Particularly, this study discussed and elucidated the inert influence on the above safety-related parameters
by two different inerting gases of N2 and CO2. The results indicated that adding an inert component to fuel–inert gas mixtures determined the decrease of explosion range
and flammability hazard degree. The results also demonstrated that CO2 possessed higher inerting capability than N2 in this study.
Authors:Yi-Ming Chang, Mei-Li You, Jo-Ming Tseng, Yaw-Long Wang, Chun-Ping Lin, and Chi-Min Shu
The effect of initial temperatures (100, 150, and 200 °C), operating pressures (101 and 202 kPa), and various loading oxygen
concentrations (21, 17, 14…oxygen vol.%) on the flammability hazard evaluations for the mixtures of benzene and methanol (100/0,
75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%) by using rough set method, was studied. The results indicated that the most important
influence factor was the operating pressure. There is no significant difference in the safety assessment for the different
concentrations of mixtures. This study proposed a helpful reference for a related practical plant combined with experimentally
and theoretically feasible way for flammability prevention and protection.
Authors:Andriy Kapran, Sergiy Soloviev, and Svitlana Orlyk
It is shown that metal oxide composites CuO–ZnO–CeO2/Al2O3 and Cu–ZnO/Al2O3, supported by cordierite monoliths, catalyze the production of hydrogen with selectivity and yield close to 90% and above
for the decomposition and the partial oxidation of methanol. In methanol decomposition on CuO–ZnO–CeO2/Al2O3/cordierite, nanosized ceria acts as a key component stabilizing catalyst operation by suppressing carbonization of a surface,
facilitating hydrogen production with a yield of 85–96%. At the same time, copper and zinc oxides are shown to act as modifying/promoting
additives reducing the temperature of full conversion of the alcohol as well as minimizing the formation of methane as a by-product.
Concerning partial oxidation of methanol over Cu–ZnO/Al2O3/cordierite, zinc oxide (as a constituent of ZnAl2O4 aluminate) is shown to be a “self-sufficient” catalytic component playing a key role in the high-yield H2 producing. A non-additive effect of decrease in selectivity concerning CO (as a by-product) on the binary Cu–ZnO catalyst,
as compared with the samples derived from individual components Cu and ZnO, is found.
Authors:L. G. Gordeeva, A. A. Khassin, G. K. Chermashentseva, and T. A. Krieger
Methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is one of the most important processes in chemical industry. The conversion of the reactants in a conventional tubular fixed-bed reactor is limited by the
Authors:Suhong Zhang, Bianling Zhang, Zhixian Gao, and Yizhuo Han
The highest propylene selectivity and best catalytic stability were gained over Ca modified ZSM-5 that had little free Brønsted
acid sites, which indicated that Ca interacted with Brønsted acid sites and thus participated in the catalytic reaction as
supported by the MTO data of Na modified ZSM-5. A possible mechanism that involves the formation of acid-base centers by hydrolyzing
Ca species in the presence of water is suggested.
Authors:Rachid Sahki, Ouarda Benlounes, Ouiza Chérifi, René Thouvenot, Mohammed M. Bettahar, and Smain Hocine
dioxide is its hydrogenation into valuable compounds such as methanol, generally on copper based catalysts. The synthesis of methanol from CO/CO 2 /H 2 mixtures using CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts is currently attracting much interest due to its economical
Authors:Jelliarko Palgunadi, Indri Yati, and Kwang Jung
point out that the direct synthesis process is more favorable than the traditional methanol dehydration process [ 1 , 2 ]. DME production will be dependent on the activity of the methanol synthesis catalyst because the methanol formation has been
Authors:B. Kupcsulik, B. Sevella, A. Ballagi, and J. Kozma
, H. & Delgado, J. M. (1997): Different methanol feeding strategies to recombinant Pichia pastoris cultures producing high level of dextranase. Biotech. Tech. , 11 , 461-466.
Different methanol feeding strategies to
The methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction was first discovered in the laboratory of Mobil Company using a ZSM-5 catalyst [ 1 ]. Higher temperature and lower pressure were proved to have positive effects on the olefin