Authors:Rachel Popelka-Filcoff, Claire Lenehan, Michael Glascock, John Bennett, Attila Stopic, Jamie Quinton, Allan Pring, and Keryn Walshe
Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many
types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the
overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to
understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition
and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical “fingerprint”. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity
(sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally
include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative
comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k0-NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in “fingerprinting”
the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed.
A simple, specific, precise and accurate stability-indicating assay method using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is described for estimation of Milnacipran hydrochloride (MIL) in bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The separations were achieved on prepared TLC plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. The mobile phase developed and optimized for bringing out the separation involves chloroform-methanol-ammonia in the ratio of 6.4:2.5:0.2 v/v/v. The densitometric scanning wavelength selected was 220 nm. The compact bands of MIL were obtained at RF value of 0.45 ± 0.02. The method developed was able to separate peaks of all the degradation products formed in ICH-prescribed stress conditions with sufficient difference in their RF values. The developed method was validated for linearity and range, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness, and the results were found to be within acceptance criteria. The reliability of the method was evaluated when it was applied for the estimation of MIL in pharmaceutical capsule formulation, and assay results gave good recovery when statistically compared with the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.
The kinetics of chromate coating formation and chromium(VI) exchange has been studied by of novel continuous radiotracer method. Comparison has been made with former results obtained by a quasi-continuous procedure and kinetic constants have been determined.
Measurement of uranium in highly enriched reactor fuel sticks has been achieved by elaboration of the method of Amiel. Calibration
of the method was achieved by three methods: comparison of dissolved sample with aqueous standard, comparison of sample, with
handcrafted standard stick, and the extrapolated-aliquot procedure. Precision and accuracy of<0.5% relative are achieved in<2
min measurement time on a production basis, Precisions of<0.1% relative are achieved in replicate measurements.
Slow pyrolysis of walnut shell which is a cheap and abundantly available solid waste was carried out using thermogravimetric
analysis. The effects of raw material heating rate on the pyrolysis properties and kinetic parameters were investigated. A
two-step consecutive reaction model were used to simulate the pyrolysis process. The kinetic parameters were established by
using the pattern search method. Comparison between experimental data and the model prediction indicated that the two-step
consecutive reaction model can better describe the slow pyrolysis of walnut shell as the formation of an intermediate during
the pyrolysis process was taken into account.
Authors:Mandakini Maharana, K. Eappen, and D. Sengupta
Studies on natural background radiation show that the major contribution of radiation dose received by population is through
inhalation pathway vis-à-vis contribution from radon (222Rn) gas. The immediate parent of radon being radium (226Ra), it is imperative that radium content is measured in the various matrices that are present in the environment. Among the
various methods available for the measurement of radium, gamma spectrometry and radiochemical method are the two extensively
used measurement methods. In comparison with these two methods, the radon emanometric technique, described here, is a simple
and convenient method. The paper gives details of sample processing, radon bubbler, Lucas cell and the methodology used in
the emanometric method. Comparison of emanometric method with gamma spectrometry has also undertaken and the results for a
few soil samples are given. The results show a fairly good agreement among the two methods.
Authors:Danielle Giron, S. Monnier, M. Mutz, P. Piechon, T. Buser, F. Stowasser, K. Schulze, and M. Bellus
Adequate very sensitive quantification methods are needed for the development and are also now required for the monitoring
of undesirable solid form(s) as routine tests. The pre-requisite for quantitation are selectivity, sensitivity and most important
the purity of standards and their proper storage, what is a challenge for metastable forms.
Several analytical techniques are available such as X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microcalorimetry.
The different steps of the validation of the analytical methods and problems to be solved are discussed. Examples illustrate
the different techniques and compare their possible advantages and limits. The relative standard deviation of measurements
should allow for checking the homogenization procedure of mixtures for calibration. The validation should be carried out following
ICH guidelines for validation of analytical methods. Comparison of different techniques in adequate concentration range add
confidence in the analytical results.
Psychedelic entity experiences are examined from perspectives of evolutionary psychology and neurophenomenology. Their similarities with other entity experiences illustrate the need for a general biological explanation of entity experiences. Mechanisms are proposed to involve innate modules, operators, and intelligences that underlie ordinary cognitive inferences and provide the basis for supernatural thought.
Comparisons of ayahuasca and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) entity experiences with other types of entity experiences show their fundamental similarities to conceptions of spirit guides, mythological beings, divinities, extraterrestrials, angels, celestial beings, demons, gnomes, dwarfs, elves, and others. Entities exemplify the properties of anthropomorphism, exhibiting qualities of humans. Comparative methods are proposed to identify common features and differences in psychedelic and other entity experiences.
Features of psychedelic entities reflect the functions of principal innate operators and modules (i.e., animacy detection, social role inferences, and mind reading) that have central roles in the explanation of the genesis of spirit experiences and beliefs. Humans’ innate psychology includes diverse forms of self and alien self-phenomena, providing mechanisms for explaining psychedelic entity experiences. Neurophenomenological approaches illustrate that the physiological effects of psychedelics can account for release of innate modules and mental organs. The concept of the phantasy mode of consciousness provides a mechanism through which our unconscious causal and explanatory mechanisms produce accounts of encounters with non-human beings. The extensive interaction of DMT with the receptorome explains why these experiences give such a powerful sense of ontological certainty.
Psychedelic entity experiences share central features with a robust innate human tendency to attribute agency, intentionality, causality, and personhood and to create accounts involving human-like qualities and entities.
Authors:Balázs Nemes, Roland Fedor, Zsolt Kanyári, Lajos †Lőcsey, Ferenc Juhász, Dávid Ágoston Kovács, Gergely Zádori, Ferenc Győry, Réka P. Szabó, Lajos Zsom, Tamás Szabó, Lóránt Illésy, Marcell Szabó-Pap, Zsolt Kincses, László Szabó, László Damjanovich, József Balla, and László Asztalos
Bevezetés: A Debreceni Egyetemen 1991-ben végezték el az első
veseátültetést. Hazánk 2013-ban csatlakozott az Eurotransplanthoz.
Célkitűzés: A szerzők elemezték a tapasztalatokat.
Módszer: 2008. január 1. és 2013. augusztus 31. között (A
csoport = 163) és 2013. szeptember 1. és 2015. október 22. között végzett
cadavervese-átültetések (B csoport = 90) adatait elemezték.
Eredmények: Az élődonorok aránya 3,5%-ról 9,1%-ra nőtt.
2013 óta a recipiensek 25%-a 60 évesnél idősebb, a >30 kg/m2
testtömegindex aránya 31%-ra, a diabetesesek aránya kétszeresére emelkedett. Az
ureteroneocystostomia mellett bevezetésre került a vég az oldalhoz
ureteroureteralis anastomosis. Indukciós kezelés mellett az akut rejectiós
epizód jelentősen csökkent (34%-ról 8%-ra). A technikai szövődmények aránya nem
változott. A bakteriális fertőzések aránya csökkent (41%-ról 33%-ra). Az 1, 3 és
5 éves veseallograft-túlélések 86,6%, 85% és 82,7%, valamint 88%, 84% és 84%
voltak a két csoportban. Következtetések: Az extended criteria
donor arány emelkedett. 2013 óta lehetségessé vált az akut humoralis rejectio
kezelése. Az esetszám-növekedés mellett az eredmények jók. Orv. Hetil., 2016,