The subject of my paper concerns the iconography of the mysterious relief at Modena (Galleria Museo e Medagliere Estense, inv. 2676) showing a young god in a cosmic egg. The paper is to review the state of research in modern scholarship since 1863, to discuss various attempts at its interpretation, and to propose my own working hypothesis, which links the Modena relief to the Orphic Rhapsodies and the Middle-Platonic passage transmitted by Porphyry of Tyre in his The Cave of the Nymphs 21–29.
The cathedral “Esztergom II”. The construction of the St. Adalbert’s Cathedral in the twelfth century with an Excurse: To the chronology of the Early Gothic in the middle of the Kingdom as witneßsed by the Cistercian Abbey of Kerc (Cǎrţa, Kerz, RO), Transylvania. Among at least 4 construction periods of the medieval Cathedral (not counting additional buildings) the second building cannot be dated by written sources and is only witnessed by its High Romanesque and Early Gothic stone sculpture. As in the late seventeenth and in the eighteenth century stone elements from the ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Pilis were used as building material in Esztergom and later also medieval stone sculptures from the region (mainly from the provostry in Dömös) entered in the collection of the Esztergom Castle. The distinction among these related monuments has in recent times also determined our concept of reconstruction of the Esztergom Cathedral. This reconstruction can be based on a few authentic landscapes, on a series of surveys drawn by military engineers and a description of the ruins before their final demolition. The early book by J. B. Máthes (1827) also contains a detailed ground plan of the St. Adalbert Church – a survey drawing from the early eighteenth century with possible traces of an ideal reconstruction. In recent times more efforts were spent to hypotheses concerning the building I of St. Adalbert’s than to the second construction, the ruins of which were still standing by the middle of the eighteenth century. It was a basilical building originally with an apse (rebuilt as a polygonal choir in the fourteenth century) between two towers in the East. The levels of the oriental part of the church are well documented: as the canons’ choir in the 3 east bays of the nave was elevated by 2 steps over the aisles, the choir square with the main apse was higher than the chorus minor. As the altar of the Virgin Mary in front of the choir was dedicated in 1156, the eastern parts of the building together with several parts of the nave can be dated about this time. The sculptures belonging to this building are classicizing (Corinthian and composite) capitals, partly with figurative elements, going back to figurative capitals from Dömös and related to classicizing details from the construction of the first half of the twelfth century of the royal priory in Óbuda. It seems that the capitals have belonged to a construction both with composed piers and with columns – perhaps in a form of alternation. The nave was not vaulted until the fourteenth century, but vaulting in choir and also in the aisles seems probable. The western part of the nave was built with cross-shaped piers observed by an eighteenth century witness of the ruins. Capitals with acanthus leaves and also with elements of chapiteaux à crochet appear as typical elements of this style also present in the inferior room of the annex to the donjon of the royal Palace, which was built presumably in the 1180’s. The role of North-Italian (magistri campionesi and also Antelami) models in the transmission of stylistic elements of French Early Gothic mixed with Italian traditions has received a strong accent mainly in the art-historical literature of the last decades. The author indicates a very strong analogy of this orientation in Esztergom with the late twelfth century reconstruction of the Salzburg Cathedral of Archbishop Konrad III, the crypt of which was dedicated in 1219. The use of local red marbles – together with the polychromy of different stones – on a series of decorative works following the models of the Salzburg Cathedral in the first half of the thirteenth century is comparable to Esztergom. Recent research – supported both by analysis of sources, technical observations and also geological investigation – have proved that large surfaces of the Esztergom Cathedral were covered with red limestone plates, for obtaining a noble effect. The supposed chronology of Esztergom can be supported by a new chronology of the Transylvanian Cistercian Abbey of Kerc, where the earliest parts of the building seem to correspond to models in Esztergom and Pilisszentkereszt about the hypothetical foundation year 1202. The relationship of this workshop to the central region of the country found its continuation about 1220 as on Kerc monastery appear influences of later works of the same circle (Óbuda, royal palace, cathedral Kalocsa II) and elements of the South German Early Gothic (Magdeburg, Walkenried, Maulbronn) as well. The parish church in Szászsebes (Mühlbach, Sebeş, RO) can be considered as a parallel to Kerc Abbey. Among local followers of Kerc, in Brassó (St. Barthelemys’ Kronstadt, Braş ov, RO), and Halmágy (Holmwegen, Halmăgiu, RO) can be identified decorative and also figurative forms originating from Salzburg, maybe through the intermediary of Kalocsa. It seems, that up to the first third of the thirteenth century the model of Kerc is still valid for provincialized followers as Prázsmár (Tartlau, Prejmer, RO) and Szék (Sic, RO). The latest phase of its influence shows a modernisation following the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Weiβenburg, Karlsstadt, Alba Iulia, RO).
This study investigated the effects of skim-milk supplementation on the quality and penetrating ability of boar semen preserved at 15 °C. When boar semen samples were preserved in Modified Modena extender supplemented with various concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 50 mg/mL) of skim milk powder at 15 °C for 4 weeks, higher sperm motility and viability were observed in the case of 7.5 mg/mL skim-milk supplementation compared with the control group (0 mg/mL) during the preservation (P < 0.05). When in vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with boar sperm that had been preserved in Modified Modena extender with three different concentrations (0, 7.5 or 15 mg/mL) of skim milk powder at 15 °C for two weeks, there were no apparent effects of skim-milk supplementation on the rates of fertilisation and development to blastocysts of oocytes after co-incubation. However, the monospermic fertilisation rate of sperm preserved with 15 mg/mL skim milk powder was higher (P < 0.05) than that of fresh non-preserved sperm, but did not differ among the preservation groups. The results indicate that the supplementation of Modified Modena extender with 7.5 mg/mL skim milk powder improves the motility and viability, but not the penetrating ability, of sperm after liquid preservation for at least two weeks.
Authors:S. Bastianoni, V. Niccolucci, and M. Picchi
We present a thermodynamic analysis of the sustainable use of resources in the province of Modena, focusing the attention
on the district of Sassuolo. The methodology that is used is the emergy evaluation. The analysis shows that the Sassuolo district
represents the peak of non-sustainability of the whole area, with a huge consumption of non-renewable primary resources, both
imported and local. The role of the ceramic tile industry is relevant in the consumption of energy and materials. Different
types of factories for ceramics production are compared, representing a good sample of different methods of production. Emergy
analysis shows which of these has higher levels of sustainability with respect to the others.
Pipinato A., Pellegrino C., Modena C. Assessment procedure and rehabilitation criteria for the riveted railway Adige Bridge, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering , Vol. 8, No. 8, 2012, pp. 747–764.
Authors:Zhao Namula, Fuminori Tanihara, Manita Wittayarat, Maki Hirata, Nhien Thi Nguyen, Takayuki Hirano, Quynh Anh Le, Masahiro Nii, and Takeshige Otoi
Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris) has been used as a pH regulator for buffering the pH of dilution extenders for boar semen, such as the Modena extender. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of Tris supplementation at different concentrations (0, 8, 24 and 72 μM) into the freezing extender on the quality and fertilising capacity of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. The results showed that the supplementation of 24 μM of Tris gave significantly higher percentages of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity than those of the control group at any time point of assessment (0 h and 3 h post-thawing) (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the acrosome integrity parameter among the groups. Higher percentages of sperm motility were observed in the spermatozoa cryopreserved with 24 μM of Tris compared to the control groups when the samples were analysed 0 h after thawing (P < 0.05). However, an increase of the Tris concentration to 72 μM did not enhance the sperm motility parameters. The total numbers of fertilised oocytes and blastocysts obtained with spermatozoa frozen with 24 μM Tris were significantly higher than those of the control group without Tris (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 24 μM Tris into the freezing extender contributes to a better boar sperm quality and fertilising capacity after the process of freezing and thawing.
The Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus’s royal library as the collection of a renaissance/humanist ruler was enriched not only with works ordered or purchased in Italy but also with manuscripts made in Buda. Most recent investigations suggest that illumining and copying activity started in the Buda court only after the arrival of Queen Beatrice (1476).
The paper is concerned with one of the marked illuminator figures of the Buda workshop labelled – for want of real identification – as “the first emblazoner”. (His figure was first outlined by Edith Hoffmann in the 1920s, who also verified that he had been trained in Florence.) So far modest floral ornaments and Matthias’s coat of arms had been attributed to this illuminator, in addition to two voluminous manuscripts, the Alberti Corvina in Modena and the Ambrosius Corvina in Paris (Modena, BEU, ms.Lat.419; Paris, BnF, Cod. Latin 1767).
The paper sheds light on the illuminator’s figure embedded in a broader context and viewed from a new angle. The novel aspect is the differentiation between the illuminator’s own style and style imitation. The author managed to demonstrate that the master did not only create his own style but occasionally imitated the style of others. Accordingly, the first half of the study analyses the illuminator’s own style in detail, and the second half discusses his work with the method of imitation. The basis for the examination of the latter is the Ransanus manuscript (Bp. OSZK, cod. Lat. 249) in which the master’s hand imitating a certain Franco-Flemish style can be safely identified.
While explicating the above topics, the author also proposes new ideas about the genesis and localization of two important corvina manuscripts. She proves that the Philostratus (Bp., OSZK, Cod. Lat. 417) and Ransanus Corvinae so-far believed to have been made in Florence and Southern Italy were actually produced in the Buda workshop. The author uses all aspects of codicological research in her argumentation. This is the first time during the research that a scribe figure is also delineated who worked in the Buda workshop at the very end of the 1480s. The Beda Corvina as well as Nagylucsei’s Psalter (Venice, BNM, Lat. VIII. 2=2796; Munich, BSB, Clm 175; Budapest, OSZK, Cod. Lat. 369) are by his hand. The Philostratus Corvina can be attributed to a scribe who imitated him fairly closely.
The author concludes that the working method of the “first emblazoner” (idiosyncratic and imitated styles) and his role in different codices epitomize the functioning of the Buda workshop. She opines that the structure of the workshop was based on the parallel activity and occasional collaboration of outstanding and lesser masters. It is almost self-evident to infer from her reasoning that the Florentine illuminator Boccardino il Vecchio possibly decorated the Philostratus Corvina in Buda. The author points out that the inner initials of the manuscript are not by Boccardino il Vecchio but by a lesser figural painter. One of the secondary initials is clearly the copy of a Francesco Rosselli half-figure type. This phenomenon locates the second hand (“first emblazoner”?) to Buda. (Rosselli worked in Buda in 1479/80, his works were included in the Buda library, too.) The fact that a lesser master had a role in such an exquisite manuscript is ascribed by the author to the structure of the Buda workshop.
At the same time the paper also raises the question of the contribution of the “second emblazoner” within the Corvina Library and concludes that the Ransanus manuscript is the joint work of the “first” and “second emblazoners” in Buda (working on the codex with time lags).
The author reflects upon the long-standing question of dating the two heraldic painters and adduces important data to support the earlier also proposed hypothesis that the first and second emblazoners worked parallel, and their work coincided with the comprehensive development and unification of the Buda library at the very end of the 1480s.
Bassanini, P., On a boundary value problem for a class of quasilinear hyperbolic systems in two independent variables, Atti Sem. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena 24 (1975), 343-372. MR 55 #3548
On a boundary value problem for a class of