Terlig is a characteristic Mongolian dress. It was originally developed to accommodate aspects of Mongolian lifestyle and culture. During the Yuan dynasty, it came to symbolise the dress of higher social status. The original composition of the garment, i.e. the clothing material, created the initial form of the coat with a cutline at the waist that facilitated an equestrian lifestyle. A waistband and folds on the waistline were similarly added later. After attaining symbolic value, some of the terlig’s original functionality was lost, the waistband disappeared, and only the folds on the waist remained. The dual aspects of the terlig as a functional Mongolian coat and its symbolic aspect became part of high culture and were spread to the Khanates and neighbouring regions by the official dress system. Through this process, hybridity with Islamic and other local cultures occurred. Through secondary diffusion in the Mughal Empire, the terlig gained a new identity. During this later period its continued use in China and East Asia became fixed around an aspect of formality. In some marginal regions of the former Mongol Empire, it has survived to this day as an ethnic costume. The terlig, as a legacy of the Mongol Empire, continues to be worn.
]. ‘Animal Terminology in the Uyghur Documents Concerning the Postal System of the MongolEmpire . ’ Turkic Languages 23 / 2 : 192 – 210 . Vér , Márton 2019b . ‘Chancellery and Diplomatic Practices in Central Asia during the Mongol Period as Shown in
: 396 – 435 . Brose , Michael C . 2007 . Subjects and Masters: Uyghurs in the MongolEmpire . [Studies on East Asia 28.] Washington : Western Washington University . BUELL , Paul and Eugene N. ANDERSON 2010 2. A Soup for the Qan. [Second
The author of this article examines the gradual accumulation of information in the Hungarian Kingdom about the Mongol Western Campaign and the corresponding propagation of this information in Western Europe. The primary information was brought to Europe by the Dominican friar Julian after his return from his travel to the Volga Magyars at the end of 1235. The letter of friar Julian written at the beginning of 1238 is replete with information about Mongol tactical warfare, previous military campaigns of Chingis Khan and Jochi, and the first Mongol conquest in the early stages of the Western Campaign of Batu. He also brought an oral report of the Prince of Vladimir on the Mongol plans to attack the Hungarian Kingdom. Soon the content of Julian’s letter became known in Western Europe. The Hungarian King Béla IV started to make preparations for the imminent Mongol invasion and attempted to organise resistance.
The Turkic nomads of the Mongol successor states in Central Asia and the Qipchaq Steppe arose from the merging of various Turkic groups and the Mongols. The former had consisted of heterogeneous elements that did not coalesce into a single entity sharing a common identity and historical consciousness. They thus did not constitute a uniform majority in relation to the more cohesive Mongols. In terms of tribal and genetic compositions, the Turkic nomads of the Mongol successor states were closer to the Mongols than to the pre-Mongol Turkic groups. Naturally, they held on to a predominantly Mongol orientation rather than reverting to pre-Mongol identities.
From the second half of the 13th century, the Franciscan Order had played an important role in missionary activities in the Mongol Empire. The present paper investigates the Franciscans’ role based on a letter written in 1287 by a Franciscan friar from the Crimea (frater Ladizlaus custos de Gazma) in which he described the events of recent years. For example, he reported on the baptism of a certain “Yaylaq”, identified as a wife of Noghay, in the Crimea. In this paper, the historical background of this letter will be analysed with an emphasis on the relationship between the Franciscan order and the Golden Horde and the role of Yaylak Khatun’s conversion in this process.
2000 . ‘al-Nuwayrī as a Historian of the Mongols.’ In: Hugh Kennedy (ed.) The Historiography of Islamic Egypt: (c.950-1800) . Brill : Leiden , 23 – 36 . Atwood , Christopher P . 2004 . Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the MongolEmpire . New
. Biran , Michal 2013 . ‘The MongolEmpire: The State of the Field . ’ History Compass 11 / 11 : 1021 – 1033 . Biran , Michal 2015 . ‘The MongolEmpire and Inter-Civilizational Exchange.’ In: Benjamin Z . Kedar and Merrey , E . Wiesner