The paper deals about significant projects of large scale mapping at the beginning of 19th century in the Habsburg Empire. They have been already based on uniform geodetic horizontal control. Basic parameters and features of Second Military Survey in the territory of the Czech Lands as well as links with project of Stable cadastre are delineated. Technology of establishing the horizontal control (1st order trigonometric networks) is described in detail. Qualitative parameters of geodetically measured data and the survey documentation are analysed. Accuracy analysis of angular measurements and methodology of co-ordinate computations in the Gusterberg coordinate system are also discussed.By means of identical points the horizontal control enables unambiguous transformation from the Gusterberg and St. Stephen co-ordinate systems into the national co-ordinate system (JTSK) or WGS 84 with the accuracy higher than graphical accuracy of original maps. This transformation, published here as the global transformation key (GTK), is of great importance. The results of tests of GTKs compiled separately for Bohemia and Moravia+Silesia together with the analysis of contact zone of both above mentioned historical co-ordinate systems are introduced.As an example of GTK application georeferenced map sheets from Second Military Survey are presented. GTKs are of fundamental importance in unification of heterogeneous geodetic information files of cadastre of real estates in the Czech Republic.
: Studie o novokrtencích [Studies of Anabaptists] . Etnos, Strážnice.
P AJER , Jirí 2011 : Anabaptist Faience from Moravia 1593–1620. Catalogue of documents from institutional and private collections . Etnos, Strážnice.
In the paper the overview of the content and methodological background of the recently published and currently prepared volumes of Ethnological atlas of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia is given. The main aim of the paper is to show, how written sources from the early modern period could help with the preparation of ethnological maps in the country, where field research of the folk culture hardly can be done at present. Secondly the very successful application of GIS (geographic information system) in the ethnological research is stressed. The very best example of fruitful utilization of both the mentioned aspects is the 5th volume of the Ethnological atlas of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, which deals with spatial differentiation of the Jewish settlements and professions in Bohemia.1
Anabaptist settlements formed a specific enclave in the area of western Moravia, named “Horní dvory” in chronicles. They include Trstěnice (Stiegnitz), Tavíkovice (Teikovitz), Višňové (Wischenau), Skalice (Skalitz) and Čermákovice (Schermankowitz). According to written reports and archaeological finds, a settlement at Čermákovice, situated on the territory of the municipality of Horní Kounice, was in 2014 identified with Alinkov farmstead. The closed rectangular courtyard forms a unique preserved complex, comprising a main residential building, an adjacent residential building with a mill, and a row of farm buildings. In the main residential building, interior spaces were identified which served the needs of the Anabaptist community at Čermákovice as a whole.
A special iconographic interpretation of the Holy Trinity is represented by an engraving kept in the Strahov abbey library of the Premonstratensian canons of Prague. The print was made after Dionysius Strauss' drawing and is the artist's first extant holy image engraved in copperplate. In the monastery of Hradiško u Olomouce Strauss was regarded as the artist of the order respected for the inventiveness of his themes. It is a known fact from 1695 that he presented a painting on the birthday of prior Bernard Wanzke showing the crucified Christ with the Father and the Holy Spirit with lambs feeding on the blood gushing forth from the Son's side. Undoubtedly, the graphic sheet marked “P. Dion. Straus delin. — J. Tscherning sculp.” was made after the lost painting. The words in the banderole above the composition “ut vitam habeant” (that they may have life) are from St John's gospel (Jn 10,10).
A somewhat modified variant of the theme is a copperplate engraving also from the late 17th century by Johann Gaspar Gutwein (1669–1730) who worked in Prague, Brno, Augsburg, Regensburg and Graz. The print marked “J. G. Gutwein sc. Brunae” probably adorned the flyleaf of a book. This precious specimen of my private collection shows an infant angel with clasped hands behind the cross, with a quotation from St Luke's gospel on the banderole falling down by its elbow: “… parata sunt omnia” (all things are now ready, Luke 14,17). The words refer to the feast of the flock of the Saviour. The blood and water from the side of Christ collected in a pearl-shell refer to the life-giving and maintaining sacraments of baptism and the eucharist from which the scrawny lambs will gain strength.
There is a little known 18th century oil painting in the St Maurice Benedictine monastery of Bakonybél. There are no inscriptions, but white lambs are feeding on the life-giving blood which has cleaned them, flowing from Christ's side into a bowl. The tree of paradise with the serpent is in the background to indicate that Christ's sacrifice on the cross was made in reparation of the original sin: Christ defeated Satan on the cross. This peculiar version of the Holy Trinity representations originated from catholic Moravia in the Tridentine revival of spirituality in Central Europe, as the above described depictions suggest.
At the time of the renovation of the Bishops’ Residence in Kroměříž after the fire in 1752, Franz Anton Maulbertsch was invited to the town and in 1759 painted the fresco in the Feudal Hall the commission of Bishop Leopold von Egkh. Two drawings by attributed Monika Dachs to the painter Josef Stern in her thesis in 2003 were until recently considered as unexecuted variations of the central scene of The Apotheosis of Leopold von Egkh. The drawing Allegory with Fides, Justitia and Pictura (Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Wien) represents a part of the wall painting, executed in 1759 on the vault of the Great Library of the Castle by Josef Stern. Another drawing, Apotheosis with Saturn, Hercules and Fama (Ratjen Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington), was after the style analysis attributed to Stern as well, but as a draft for composition of bishop's apotheosis in the Feudal Hall. This article proves Stern's authorship of both drawings. As regards the first of them, in accordance with final painting in the library the drawing's iconographic plan is revised and corrected (Doctrina, Justitia, Astronomia and Medicina). Another drawing from the Ratjen Collection is connected to the preserved written draft of the unexecuted painting in the Great Dining Room of the Castle Residence. This commission was ordered from Maulbertsch again according to the contract from 1760. The drawing adopts Maulbertsch's style and composition of Egkh's apotheosis in Feudal Hall, but it follows the motif of bishop's glorification, which was planned for the dining room. The reason of joint art work of the two painters at the dining room may be an extremely demanding scale of the commission – large area of the vault surface, that was to be covered by wall painting.
While the Anabaptist movement was still fluid in the early 1520s, it soon crystallized into factions with sharp differences. Although the Moravian Anabaptists never succeeded in creating common doctrines and practices, the Central and East European experience was not merely a marginal part of the great Anabaptist story. Out of these divergent tendencies grew a strong sect that survived exile through a radical social experiment. Hutterite colonies, settled in a hostile environment, flourished for a long period while other sects disappeared within a few years. The factors that determined the advance and survival of the Hutterites point beyond religious motives. This social experiment was dependent on the integrated social structure enabling them to cope with an aggressive environment without assimilating. Various epochs of the Hutterite history show that communal life was never a uniform and perfect experience, but variants of the structure persisted in the colonies as they evolved in their local circumstances.
In recent years the ideological premises and practices of early medieval funerary rituals, which are extremely complex and largely still unexplored, have become a highly topical subject in the field of European historiography. Indeed, from Late Antiquity onwards the presence and integration of different cultural traditions, and the rapid establishment and spread of Christianity led to the development of new social models of behaviour, which are not always easy to decipher, in terms of both settlements and the relationship with death and the forms in which it was represented. While archaeological research allows us to make contact with the material results of these new models of behaviour, it is not always straightforward — particularly for funerary practices — to identify the ensuing system of values and cultural models. In some cases we may suppose that material forms of apparently similar rituals are actually the fruit of different motivations and mental universes. Consequently, there is a strong need to acquire a better understanding of the process of reciprocal acculturation that occurred in the Roman-Byzantine and Germanic worlds between the 5th and 7th centuries in the sphere of funerary rituals and, in particular, the relationship between burials and places of worship, which appears to be the area able to offer the most useful clues regarding the methods and dating of the acquisition of Roman customs — at least on an outward level — by the Langobard elite.
It is a commonplace that after the release of a new monograph so-far unknown works begin to rise to the surface one after the other. In the case of Johann Lucas Kracker the first to appear were parallel research results, of which most noteworthy are PetrArijčuk's attributions based on archival sources. He discovered the fourth member of the refectory series in the Franciscan monastery of Moravská Třebová (The Feast of St Francis, 1759) and made the daring identification between the high altar picture in the hospital church of St Elizabeth in Znojmo with the Assumption of the Virgin long missing from Slavonice. On the basis of data from the Premonstratensian archives of Nova Řiše Václáv Milek offered a more exact dating for the altar pictures of the abbey: the pictures delivered in 1760 preceded by years not only Kracker's frescoes in the same church but also the similar works at Jasov. The late altar pictures from Banská Bystrica and the paintings discovered around Jasov were probably created with the participation of the workshop.
The recently discovered oil sketches associated with Kracker proved to be by a follower of Daniel Gran, Josef Stern and by Andreas Zallinger. Nor is the pair of bozzetti acquired recently by the Diözesanmuseum of Brixen by Kracker or by Paul Troger; they must be small-scale copies of Kracker's side altarpieces in Prague or of their sketches, or again, copies of the – now lost – Troger works used as their models. One of them – The Death of St Joseph – was also found in another variant in the Viennese art trade. What were put up for auction in Budapest were workshop copies of a pair of cabinet pictures in the Gallery of Eger – Adoration of the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi, around 1764 – true to the original colours, which means that they were made after the paintings and not their engraved models.
There is less novelty in the realm of frescoes. The division of labour in the decoration of the Šaštín church of pilgrimage is gradually clarified: in addition to Joseph Chamant and Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer, Kracker's contribution can be presumed to the painted decoration of two subsidiary chapels in 1757. The shared attributon of the parish church of Japons has to be revised: the Apotheosis of St Lawrence on the ceiling is also Kracker's work dated 1767. In the former Jesuit church of Eger wall probings brought to light not only the baroque ornaments on the lateral walls of the nave but also the backdrop in the chancel described in the sources and the original painting by Kracker's workshop on the high altar adorned with statues.