the cement mortar that determines the specific properties of this concrete [ 1 ].
The composition of the self-compacting cement mortar (SCM) is characterized with (i) a large diversity of water-reducing admixtures, (ii) a high content of
Authors:Eethar Thanon Dawood and Marwa Saadi Mhmood
instance, steel slag decreased the workability of concrete [ 2 ], also WA decreased the workability, that extra water needed to be added [ 3 ]. On the other hand, mortar flow was slightly increased with increased in GP addition [ 4 ]. Additionally, GP
Pozzolanic reaction simply consists of an acid–base reaction between calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), and silicic acid (H 4 SiO 4 , or Si(OH) 4 ). The reactivity of pozzolans, in the case of lime-based mortars, is attributed to their content in amorphous silica
Authors:V. Stoyanov, B. Kostova, V. Petkova, and Y. Pelovski
The decorative cement mortars and concretes are an artificial imitation of the natural stones. The main advantage of these artificial stones is their better workability, but the durability and stability are their
Authors:A. Duran, L. Perez-Maqueda, J. Poyato, and J. Perez-Rodriguez
Roman ancient mortars have been widely studied, in connection with both diagnosis and application required for restoring.
Thermoanalytical experiments performed on mortars from Pompeii and Herculaneum provided a very good understanding of the technology
employed. The mortars from Pompeii were obtained by the proper mixing of lime and marble grains while mortars of Herculaneum
by lime and silicates compounds. The position of the endothermic peak of calcite decomposition showed important variations
in the different samples studied, which was assigned to the different crystallinity and particle sizes. Experiments under
CO2 flow confirmed the presence of magnesium calcium carbonates.
The use of thermal analysis in studying ancient mortars in English cathedrals is explained. Thermal analysis can be used to
investigate both mortar and stone in dated structures. Analysis of ancient mortars show that though recarbonated, they remain
soft, yielding to structural deformations. The use of hard (cement mortar) in modern renovation can result in micro-cracking
in the stone and subsequent chemical attack from the atmosphere. Contrary to the literature, data developed in the present
study suggests that most medieval mortars have reached a near total state of recarbonation.
Authors:Paola Cardiano, S. Sergi, Concetta De Stefano, S. Ioppolo, and P. Piraino
The ancient mortars of the monastery of San Filippo di Fragalà in Frazzanò, the first Basilian-Norman center in Sicily, have
been studied and classified by means of ICP, HPLC, TG-DTA, XRD and thin sections analysis. A new very simple method to evaluate
the hydraulic properties of the mortars, based on the combination of analytical and thermogravimetric data, is also reported.
The HPLC investigations indicate that the monastery is only partially involved in decay phenomena due to the action of soluble
The properties of hydraulic mortars were studied by means of simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), according to a procedure
proposed in the literature. Hydraulic limes, cement and/or slaked lime were mixed using different proportions of both inert
and reactive aggregates, in order to test the effectiveness of such procedure in distinguishing the different degree of hydraulicity
of such samples. The use of the normalized coordinates suggested in the literature results in overlapping of the clusters
of different kinds of mortars. Modified coordinates are proposed, which give promising results in view of outlining a ‘master
curve’ of hydraulicity.