Authors:S. Waheed, N. Siddique, Q. Hamid, and M. Chaudhry
INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad.
Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in
these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements
identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation
Index (Igeo), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for
these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately
polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga,
Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an
environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed.
Authors:A. Pavlova, D. Stratiev, M. Mitkova, K. Stanulov, N. Dishovsky, and K. Georgiev
Liquid products produced from two different types of waste pyrolysismunicipal wastes and spent tyre wastes are investigated using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. This method has been applied for detailed identification of composition of the samples. The components were characterized in terms of their Kováts retention indices on a PONA capillary column. The obtained analytical data were successfully used for the characterization of the samples. More than three hundred compounds were detected. The liquid products were complex mixtures, composed mainly of C4—C12 compounds. The examination of the selected m/z values very clearly indicates the existence of the different groups of compounds. With a lot of olefins content (31.9%), followed by aromatics (20.0%), paraffins (17.3%), and naphthenes (7.5%), it is described as the liquid product from pyrolysis of municipal solid wastes. The aromatic compounds in liquid product from pyrolysis of spent tyre wastes have the highest concentration (33.5%), and they are followed by naphthenes (28.6%), olefins (19.2%), and paraffins compounds (7.0%). The present study has shown that the pyrolysis of municipal waste and spent tyres can be used as a means for reduction of environmental pollution and production of liquid product which could be used as a fuel source.
Authors:Jani Tomperi, Tuulikki Luoma, Eva Pongrácz, and Kauko Leiviskä
Tampio E. Yhdyskuntajätteen koostumus ja biohajoavuus — selvitys Kainuussa kesällä 2010, Composition and biodegradability of municipalwaste — report in Kainuu summer 2010 (in Finnish), Kainuun elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskus (Centre for
Authors:J. Añón, M. Añón, F. Fraga, J. Palacios, and L. Regueira
Following a method based on the procedure given by Hubbardet al.  the calorific values of combustion in oxygen at 298.15 K were measured by static-bomb calorimetry for forest residues.
This waste mainly coming from mount reforestation, construction of firebreaks, etc., constitutes an important risk to originate
forest fire. From combustion experiments the mean calorific value of all species studied was found close to 19 000 kJ·kg−1, similar to calorific values of Municipal Waste. It can be concluded that this forest residues can be used as an additional
fuel to be added to Municipal Solid Waste in energy recovery plants. By doing this, energy, in this moment lost as abandoned
residues, can be recovered. At the same time the elimination of this waste minimizes the risk of forest fires. Our results
reasonably agree with literature values.
Eunomia research and consulting, Costs for municipalwaste management in the EU,
, (last visited 18 Decmber 2012)
Zimler T. (Ed.) Waste management
-28, Characterization of wastes, Part 28: Investigation of municipalwastes, Sampling, 2005 .
Hungarian Standards Institution, MSZ 21420-29, Characterization of wastes, Part 29: Investigation of municipalwastes, Preparation of
. He has developed TG, DTA, and NCDTA prototypes and new applications on the characterization and quality control of minerals and raw materials, natural and synthetic products, and industrial and municipalwastes and on their thermal processing and