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. – Norris , P. ( 2009 ): Muslim Integration into Western Cultures: Between Origins and Destinations . Research Working Paper Series, RWP09-007, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

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235 Cook, D. (2002): Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic. In: Studies in Late Antiquity and Early Islam . Princeton. Donzel (van), E.— Otti, C. (2002): Yā dj ū

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. Alexander , A. C. – Welzel , C. ( 2011 ): Islam and Patriarchy: How Robust is Muslim Support for Patriarchal Values? International Review of Sociology 21 ( 2 ): 249 – 276 . Arik , H

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One of the modernization conflicts of Kyrgyz and Kazak society is discussed in this article. It is the conflict between traditional religious activities, post-Soviet Islamic revival and fundamentalism. The Islamization process in Central Asia started during the Mongol Era (13th–16th centuries). The nomadic population was also influenced by Sufitradition in Central Asia that goes back to the 12th century, but it was labeled as shamanism during Soviet times. After the democratic changes and the declaration of religious freedom, some elements of this 1000-year-old tradition have been revived or revitalized. But the so-called official Islam, sponsored by Arabic states, has turned against the popular version of Islam by using the Soviet label of shamanic tradition. In reality, people practicing these traditions are devoted Muslims, they consider them to be pure Islamic traditions. But nationalist or ethnic religious movements, as well as urban esoteric practices, also incorporate elements of this tradition to legitimize their activities. This creates a very complex situation and a growing hostility between fundamentalist and traditional religious groups.

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Abstract  

Reviews the current state of science and technology in the Muslim world in the light of the CASTASIA 1968 and the International Conference on Science in Islamic Polity 1983 recommendations of allocating 1.0 percent of GNP for R&D. The data presented indicates that the Muslim countries have not been able to achieve this target. OIC countries on the average spend 0.45 percent of their GNP on R&D as compared to 2.30 percent by OECD countries. Egypt which leads the Muslim countries spends 0.86 percent of its GNP on R&D as compared to 2.27 percent by Israel. Indonesia spends 0.17 percent as compared to 1.78 percent by Taiwan. Annual growth of R&D expenditure in a few Muslim countries, especially Turkey and Malaysia, is very encouraging. Muslims are also far behind in terms of R&D manpower. OIC countries have 8.5 scientists, engineers and technicians per 1,000 population as compared to 40.7 of world average and 139.3 for OECD countries. The contribution of Muslim countries to world science literature is also meagre. Forty-six Muslim countries contribute 1.17 percent to world science literature as compared to 1.66 percent by India and 1.48 percent by Spain. Twenty Arab countries contribute 0.55 percent as compared to 0.89 percent by Israel alone. Contribution to science literature is also analyzed on the basis of total population, literate population, and GNP per capita. Growth of science literature in many Muslim countries is faster than OECD countries.

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The present article considers the evolution of the institution of waqf among the Kazan Tatars in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Basing on an analysis of different sources and secondary literature, the author tries to point out the fallacy of some approaches claiming that the institution of waqf had legal status for the Kazan Tatars. On the contrary, an attempt is made to demonstrate that the interior policy of the Russian authorities aimed to oust the rules of Muslim law from the legal framework. Numerous attempts on the part of the Kazan Tatars to restore the institution of waqf proved unsuccessful owing to the resistance of the Russian authorities.

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Empire and Iran, 1555–1914 2000 Wheeler, B. (2002): Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis

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A tanulmány1 felhívja a figyelmet arra, hogy a globalizált világban felettébb fontos érteni és ismerni, milyen társadalmi, gazdasági és politikai folyamatok zajlanak a világ második legnépesebb országában, amely egyre inkább regionális nagyhatalmi pozíciókra tart igényt, és ahol a gazdasági fejlődés a világon az egyik legdinamikusabb. Miközben Indiában nyugati típusú demokratikus intézmények léteznek, mára átalakult tartalmuk és működésük, és sok esetben mást értenek az egyes fogalmak alatt, mint azokban az országokban, ahol ezek a fogalmak és intézmények eredetileg kialakultak. A tanulmány leszűkíti e vizsgálódást a szekularizmus, a szekuláris állam kérdésére, amely felszámolásának lehetünk tanúi napjainkban. A folyamat bevallott célja a hindú India megteremtése. A tanulmány felvázolja a törekvés ideológiai tartalmát, eszközrendszerét, összefonódását a gazdasági-társadalmi folyamatokkal. Magyarázatot keres és részben kínál arra is, hogy miért militáns a mozgalom, miért támadja a muszlimokat és főképpen a keresztényeket. A többségi elv — e demokratikus érték — sajátos indiai értelmezésével a mozgalom és annak kiterjedt szervezeti hálózatai a vallási kisebbségek felszámolására törekednek, és ennek érdekében nem riadnak vissza brutális eszközöktől és tettektől sem. Ez a meghökkentő folyamat, miközben az ősi értékekhez és törvényekhez való visszatérést hirdeti, felhasználja a modern információs forradalom minden eszközét a megújított vallási tanok és erkölcsi törvények terjesztése és elfogadtatása érdekében, ugyanakkor megszabadítja azokat ókori formájuktól és tartalmuktól, de erőteljes nacionalizmusa érdekében állítja, hogy ugyanarról a vallásról és hagyományról van szó. A tanulmány idéz néhány példát, amelyek cáfolják ezt az állítást.A nemzetközi szakirodalommal egyetértve a szerző szerint a társadalom hinduizálását követi az állam hindúvá tétele, hiszen a politika aktorainak túlnyomó többsége azonosul a hinduizmussal, mint identitása legfontosabb elemével. Ez az azonosulás és a többségi elv együttesen pedig azt a paradox helyzetet teremti meg a mai Indiában, hogy állam és társadalom számos demokratikus elv feláldozásával a hinduizmus alapján válik egységesedő nemzetté, amely ezzel igyekszik a háttérbe tolni a társadalom gazdasági, vallási és kaszteredetű feszültségeit, és bizonyos értelemben megszilárdítja a családon belüli patriarchális viszonyokat, valamint szentesíti a társadalmi hierarchia tiszteletét.

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The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy’s military missions on the Balkans can provide the only experience in Hungarian history that can be connected with a notion of colonization. The paper scrutinises some Hungarian writers’ responses to that experience. Kálmán Mikszáth as a journalist shows a shift in attitude; he strongly criticized the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but eventually he proudly advertised a colonizing discourse. The most important monument of the 40-year connection with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Hungarian culture was János Asbóth’s monography in two volumes entitled Bosnia and Herzegovina . In that work the celebration of modernisation, westernisation, the development of economy and infrastructure does not imply racism and religious intolerance. The short stories by István Tömörkény that describe the military life in the sanjak Novi Bazar offer a careful analysis of the cultural and linguistic aspects of the experience of otherness in the multicultural Balkan environment.

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Industry played an important role in the economy of Egypt during the Mamluk period. There were many kinds of industries which operated at the time, such as textiles, sugar, paper, glasswork and metalwork. Nevertheless, the period under discussion witnessed the changes in industries some of which were in a situation of malaise and were less busy. One of the important factors that has been identified as affecting industry during the time was the lack of technological innovation. This led to competition from Europe where technological innovation in many industrial sectors had been in progress from the end of 14th century.

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