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Abstract  

The rate of the15N/14N isotopic exchange between NO−HNO3 at high nitric acid concentration (2–10M) have been measured. The experimental data were obtained by contacting nitric oxide at atmospheric pressure with nitric acid solution labelled with15N, in a glass contactor.

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Abstract  

The rate of nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and HNO3 has been measured as a function of nitric oxide pressure 0.1–0.4 MPa for 1 and 2 M·1–1 HNO3. It is concluded that15N/14N exchange rate in NO–HNO3 system has a linear dependence of NO pressure as indicated by rate measurements at different NO partial pressure and constant overall pressure, by adding helium in reactor. Using the rate law:R=k[HNO3]2[N2O3] the15N/14N exchange rates for nitric acid concentrations 1.5–10 M·1–1 were calculated.

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Abstract  

The thermotropic phase solid–solid transitions compound (n-CnH2n+1NH3)2ZnCl4 (n = 14, 16, 18) were studied, and a series of their mixtures were prepared. These laminar materials contain bilayers sandwiched between metal halide layers. The low temperature crystal structures of the pure salts are characteristic of the piling of sandwiches in which a two-dimensional macro-anion ZnCl4 2− is sandwiched between two alkylammonium layers. These layers become conformationally disordered in the high temperature phases. The subsolidus binary phase diagrams of (n-C14H29NH3)2ZnCl4-(n-C18H37NH3)2ZnCl4 and (n-C16H33NH3)2ZnCl4-(n-C18H37NH3)2ZnCl4 were established by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. In each phase diagram, an intermediate compound and two eutectoid invariants were observed. There are three noticeable solid solution ranges (α, β, γ) at the left boundary, right boundary, and middle of the phase diagram.

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This paper was originally published as a chapter in the author’s recent book Europe since 1980 (Cambridge University Press, 2010). The book tells the dramatic story of the economic, social, political, and cultural transformation of Europe during the transition from the Cold War to the European Union. The author charts the overwhelming impact of the collapse of communism on every aspect of European life. Europe became safer and more united, and Central and Eastern Europe started on the difficult road to economic modernization. However, the western half of Europe also changed. European integration gained momentum. The single market and the common currency were introduced, and the Union enlarged from nine to twenty-seven countries. This period also saw a revolution in information and communication technology, the increasing impact of globalization and the radical restructuring of the political system. The book explores the impact of all of these changes as well as the new challenges posed by the economic crisis of 2008–9 and asks which way now for Europe?

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Over the last decades, there has been plenty of research and publications on Political Business Cycles (PBC), aimed at analysing and explaining the use of fiscal and monetary instruments to stimulate economic growth before elections, with the intention of impressing potential voters. Previous research on PBC in Albania reveals clear evidence of fiscal expansion before elections, but no significant changes in GDP and inflation as theory predicts. One possible explanation of this result could be economic agents’ expectations, which is the subject of this paper. We analyse consumers’ expectations before elections, the main factors underlying expectations, and the way in which these expectations influence their behaviour toward spending, and consequently the macroeconomic outcomes, deploying standard econometric methods widely applied in PBC related research. According to our research results, households’ consumption spending decreases before elections because of the higher uncertainty about their future economic situation due to the highly politicised public employment.

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Abstract

Kornai's earlier works embodied the idea that state institutions formed a system with a strong tendency to reproduce itself, and hence to resist minor reforms. Thus, at the end of socialism, huge changes were needed in politics, economics, and the law to build a new system oriented towards the market-type economy, which would again be stable, self-reinforcing and self-sustaining. Transition promoted the development of new states in Eastern Europe that conformed to the Copenhagen criteria for the EU accession. Were we too hasty in thinking that we had succeeded? The new systems are not returning to the previous one, and only in a few areas have the basic norms of a market-type economy been set aside in Hungary or Poland. But concerns arise at the interface between politics, law and economics – to do with the rule of law, the nature and role of the state, and the interactions between parliament, the executive and the judiciary. Unavoidably, there is also an interesting international dimension here, represented by the shift from the Warsaw Pact and CMEA to NATO and the EU. This paper explores these issues in the light of some of Kornai's recent analysis of developments in Hungary, while also drawing on his very insightful earlier works.

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The article agues that the much heralded Tatra Tiger phenomenon in Slovakia is much less of a miraculous growth and catch up story akin to the Asian Tigers or Ireland, and much more of a late economic recovery based on a radical opening to FDI and the reduction of the Slovak welfare state. It attempts to demonstrate how the low rate flat tax system had much less influence on this success story, and how the average Slovak citizen benefited less from it than it is usually assumed. It also aims to raise concerns about the sustainability of this model, as well as its applicability in other economies of the region.

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Physiology International
Authors: L.J. Reynolds, O.A. Vsevolozhskaya, B.B. Rice, N.R. Chavan, A.J. Dugan, H.F. Maddox, J.D. Preston, L.B. DeHoff, J.M. O'Brien, and K.J. Pearson

leaving the hospital. Table 1. Maternal and infant characteristics Characteristics Maternal N 14 Age (years) 31.5 ± 1.1 Pre-Pregnancy BMI (kg/m 2 ) 25.5 ± 1.5 Infant Birth Weight (g) 3,538.2 ± 156.2 Birth Length (cm) 51.1 ± 0.7 BMI: Body Mass Index

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We try to characterize the number of di .erent elements in A = {a 1, a 2 a n}j n such that {a 1 +a 2, a 2 +a 3a n +a 1}=Z n or {a 2 -a 1, a 3 -a 2a 1 -a n}=Z n .Partial results are proved.E.g.,in the second case for odd n all the integers in ((3 n +1)/4, n) occur.

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Abstract  

Let Y s,n denote the number of part sizes ≧ s in a random and uniform partition of the positive integer n that are counted without multiplicity. For s = λ(6n)1/2/π + o(n 1/4), 0 ≦ λ < ∞, as n → ∞, we establish the weak convergence of Y s,n to a Gaussian distribution in the form of a central limit theorem. The mean and the standard deviation are also asymptotically determined.

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