Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, K. Naeem, and M. Akram
The consumption of salad vegetables grown in industrial areas may create adverse affects on human health by causing serious
diseases and impairment of the vital organs of human body. To determine the concentrations of toxic metals such as, As, Co,
Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb and Se in salad vegetables namely tomato, cabbage, turnip, radish, carrot, onion, salad leaves, beet and cucumber,
the samples were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. After processing,
the samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentrations were observed for
arsenic (2.3 ± 0.02 μg/g) in radish, manganese (16 ± 1.3 μg/g) in salad leaves, selenium (0.2 ± 0.02 μg/g) in cabbage and
antimony (0.08 ± 0.001 μg/g) in salad leaves respectively which were also higher than those recommended by the National Environmental
Quality Control (NEQC) standards and World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the amounts of injurious arsenic (2.3 μg/g)
and selenium (0.4 μg/g) in all salad vegetables according to standard values of NEQS are two to four times higher (1.0 and
0.1 μg/g), respectively.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents
from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect,
it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this
context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations
of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values
of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively
which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence.
After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents.
Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended
by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Arif
Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural
land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy
elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health
hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn,
millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala
regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values
of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony
(0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet
crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported
in the literature.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, M. Arif, and M. Akram
The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious
threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated
and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial
effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops
and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted
soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results
obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06)
in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06)
in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature.
Authors:S. Al-Jobori, R. Itawi, A. Saad, K. Shihab, M. Jalil, and S. Farhan
As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme /I.F.A.P./ the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milks and milk powders.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na, and K in different varieties of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a252Cf source with neutron flux of 109 n s–1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves.
Authors:L. C. Oliveira, C. B. Zamboni, F. A. Genezini, A. M. G. Figueiredo, and G. S. Zahn
In this study we show that the NAA technique can be used to perform clinical analyses of blood and urine, with many advantages towards the conventional methods. From the knowledge of the neutron flux and the induced activity, the concentration ofelements were obtained. In comparison to the conventional techniques, this methodology uses smaller quantities of biological material and allows the simultaneous evaluation of the concentrations of several elements in biological samples at once, something not always possible in the conventional clinical analysis. Another important advantage is that it eliminates the use of standard materials, thus making the analyzing process practical and economic.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques have been developed and applied to the analysis of marine sediments. More than 150 core sites have been sampled in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. More than 500 surface and subsurface sediment samples have been analyzed for Ba, Cr, Fe, and various other elements of interest. Typical concentrations at various locations are given. An extensive half-life study was performed to verify that gamma lines, used for quantitation exhibited the decay parameters expected to the parent radionuclide. Suggested gamma lines are presented for a few elements of particular interest to ocean-sediment analysis.
Mn-nodule is one of the most important deep sea mineral resources to be explored and exploited in the next century. Analytical quality control based on this kind of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) is therefore necessay. In the present work, nearly 30 elements in two Chinese Mn nodule Reference Materials (RMs), GSPN-2 and GSPN-3, were determined using extendedK0-relative comparison NAA technique, developed in our laboratory. The unique features of this work include; (1) high accuracy obtained by the interal validation function of our technique; (2) extensive determinable elements obtained by the hybrid nature of our software and (3) neutron flux self-shielding corrections.
Highly enriched concentrations of several heavy metals have been found in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash. In an effort to identify possible sources of these metals in MSWI ash, a variety of disposable household plastic products was examined for heavy metal content. Using both thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) along with Compton suppression techniques, concentrations of several trace and heavy metals including Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, W and Zn were determined. Results indicate a wide range of concentrations for these elements, with large variations in plastics of similar color and intended use. As limits dealing with heavy metal content of consumer products are lowered, NAA techniques will provide a useful method for verification of product compliance.