A review of selected parameters of the growth of scientific collaboration over the last century provides further confirmation of the dependency of teamwork on the increasing professionalization of science. Analysis reveals significant inaccuracies in current views of the recency and prevalence of collaborative research, and affords a more correct picture of twentieth century developments. A change in the growth rate of the practice of scientific collaboration at about the time of World War I, and indications of associations of teamwork with financial support and research publication in leading journals are discussed. Characteristics of the natural history of scientific collaboration signify that collaboration reflects relationships of dependency within a hierarchically stratified professional community, and serves as a means of professional mobility. As such, it continues to fulfil its original functions.
In this study, lichen collections of J. Andrasovszky, H. Dingler, I. Györffy de Szigeth, K. Krause, J. Mattfeld, M. F. Nabelek, V. Pietschmann and S. Selinka from Turkey deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum have been investigated and compared with Szatala’s publications. After this reassessment, 178 infraspecific taxa were determined. Moreover, 29 unpublished specimens were discovered. In addition, the collecting localities, which are positioned in cities such as Bursa, Düzce, Gaziantep, Hakkari, Kyrklareli, Konya, Ystanbul, Yzmir, Sakarya, Trabzon, Van and Zonguldak, are discussed, and a map of these localities is provided.
The different approaches to the problem of sin frequently attributed to it an ethical connotation which would have assigned its role and place even in the history of religions. These approaches supposed implicitly a closer or looser connection between religion and ethics. The present author's historico-philological investigation, after having compared some basic linguistic and historical data of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, came to the conclusion that the early forms of the sin perceptions had not yet belonged to the sphere of ethics, while those forms which developed in early modern times have not become part of ethics. Evil and sin were originally associated with religion, later on, however, the judgement of sins has been taken over by the secularised law.
Authors:R. González-Vaquero, A.-I. Gravel, and M. Devoto
Numerous studies analyze the interactions between plants and their pollinators in ecological communities using a network approach. However, field studies rarely record all the interactions occurring in the field. In this sense Natural History Collections (NHCs) can provide information on interactions that may have been missed by field sampling. In this study we compare a network based on field sampling with a network based on data retrieved from specimens at NHCs, and we assess the degree to which these two sources of data are complementary. For this we used data available from a bee biodiversity study conducted in Southern Argentina for the South American bee genus Corynura (Halictidae: Augochlorini). Data on the floral associations of the specimens at NHCs were retrieved from the specimens’ labels, as the name of the plant species on which a given bee was captured is often recorded for many specimens at NHCs. Although field sampling recorded an unusually high number of insect-plant interactions, it misses some unique interactions present in the NHCs networks. Some structural properties of these networks are briefly analyzed, and usefulness and limitations of using NHCs data are discussed. We conclude that the information about insect-plant interactions extracted from NHCs could complement field-based data, especially in poorly sampled communities.
Authors:István Mészáros, József Mórocz, József Szlávi, László Nagy, Csaba Kató, László Tornóci, and Elek Stark
Study and Objectives:
Nearly one third of patients with aortic dissection die outside an institute, mostly suddenly. The history of such non-hospitalized patients is not sufficiently known. Investigation of the natural history of non-hospitalized patients with acute aortic dissection, and reporting on the results.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
In a population of nearly 106,500 persons, we found 85 cases of aortic dissection (45 men and 40 women) during a period of 23 years from 1984 to 2006. They included 60 hospitalized (32 male and 28 female) and 25 non-hospitalized (13 male, 12 female) patients.
Main Outcome Measures:
Clinico-pathological analysis of the 25 non-hospitalized cases. Comparison between hospitalized and non-hospitalized cases and examination of their differences.
The incidence of the 25 non-hospitalized cases observed during 23 years was 1.02/100,000/year. These 25 patients were 38 to 80 years old, on average 63.1 years. The 13 male patients were 40 to 80 years old, on average 63.2 years and the 12 female patients were 38 to 75 years old with an average age of 63.0 years. The average age of non-hospitalized women was less by 10.7 years than the average age of 73.8 years of hospitalized women. The time of the fatalities was within one hour (sudden cardiac death) in 21 patients. Two patients died between 7–9 hours, and further two patients after 10 and 22 hours. The immediate causes of death were hemopericardium and hemothorax in 23 and 2 cases, respectively. Hypertension was a major predisposing factor in 23 cases. Syncope as the initial symptom of dissection and death was known in 14 cases. There were significant differences between non-hospitalized and hospitalized cases relating to death within one hour, syncope, Type II and distal dissections, external ruptures and the ‘silent period’. Sudden cardiac death caused by acute aortic dissection is an independent pathological phenomenon.
Non-hospitalized aortic dissections constitute nearly one third of all cases. Their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment of the risk factors, particularly hypertension, prompt identification of the condition, and immediate referral to an appropriate institute.
A tanulmány egyetlen szöveg elemzéséből indul ki: idősebb Plinius Naturalis historiájának leírásából az oroszlánról (8, 41–58). Az elemzés ezt a 17 fejezetnyi narratív egységet elhelyezi az enciklopédia zoológiai tárgyú könyveinek, majd a 8. könyvnek a struktúrájában, megállapítja és értelmezi a leírás narratív sajátosságait. Mindezt tágabb összefüggésbe helyezve összeveti a téma legfontosabb előzményével, Aristotelés leírásaival az oroszlánról, illetve kitekint a legfontosabb recepciójára, Ailianos oroszlán-narratíváira. Az irodalmi kontextus mellett fontos szempont a filozófiai háttér: az ember és a természet többi élőlényének viszonyáról kialakított, alapvetően a sztoikus filozófiában gyökerező, a racionalitás-irracionalitás oppozíciójára épített álláspont. Mindennek ismeretében történik meg Plinius oroszlán-narratívájának, valamint az elemzésbe bevont analógiák alapján zoológiájának elhelyezése az antik zoológiai irodalom palettáján.
The life-work of Augustus and its memory is usually illustrated by the Res gestae as well as the historical pieces of Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio. This cultural memory omits the Augustus-portrait of the chapters 147–150 of Book 7 of the Naturalis Historia, which summarize the life or more exactly the misfortunes of the life of Rome’s first emperor. This anti-Res gestae divi Augusti is unique not only in ancient literature but in the context of the Naturalis Historia as well. Critics have advocated different explanations. This paper is devoted to an analysis of these chapters in the context of the textual unit that organically contains them, and which culminates in them.
Authors:Béla Lombay Jr., Beáta Gasztonyi, and Ferenc Szalay
Mast, E. E., Hwang, L. Y., Seto, D. S. et al.:
Risk factors for perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the naturalhistory of HCV infection acquired in infancy. J. Infect. Dis., 2005,