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Sansevero, J.B.B., P.V. Prieto, L.F.D. de Moraes and J.F.P. Rodrigues. 2011. Natural regeneration in plantations of native trees in lowland Brazilian Atlantic Forest: community structure, diversity, and dispersal syndromes. Restoration Ecol. 19

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Soil seed banks can act as an important source in forest regeneration, and the information on the seed bank composition is vital for determining the resilience of plant communities under severe environments such as urban settings. In this study, we examined the seed bank density and functional composition, and their relationships with aboveground vegetation in three remnant evergreen broad-leaved forests, i.e., PuGang (PG), LuoGang (LG), and DaLingShan (DLS) under urbanization in Guangzhou, South China. In both years of our study (2010–2011), seed density and species richness for overall soil seed banks and each classified life forms (tree, shrub, herb and grass) significantly differed among the forests and were much higher in the PG forest. The prevailing life forms in the seed banks were herbs and grasses, and the proportion of tree species Importance Value index (IV) of the seed banks was low. We did not detect significant difference in the percentage of exotic species seeds in the seed banks among the forests. The proportion of species with animal dispersal mode was much higher in the DLS forest than in the PG and LG forests. The similarity in species composition between standing vegetation and seed banks was low with the lower value in the DLS forest than in PG and LG forest. Our findings suggest that the regeneration potential of the soil seed banks is limited for the remnant forests in urban areas. Therefore, greater proactive and enhanced conservation efforts are thus needed.

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Carabid beetles and spiders are at the top of the hierarchy of general invertebrate predators, which can help to reduce the abundance of harmful forest pests. They are also frequently used as environmental indicators. In this paper we analyzed the abundance, species richness and changes in carabid beetle and spider assemblages in three treatments of pine forest regeneration – natural, natural with soil prepared by ploughing and artificial with seedlings planted in ploughed soil. The most beneficial forest regeneration treatment variant of forest regeneration for carabid beetles and spiders was the natural regeneration of pine stands without any preceding soil preparation. Both taxa responded strongly to soil ploughing. We also noted the replacement of forest species by less sensitive open area species. In carabid assemblages, large changes in the trophic structure were observed, as predatory species were replaced by hemizoophages in the ploughed treatments.

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This study aimed at the effects of habitat age on the reproductive rate of three ground beetle species that are common and widely distributed in forest ecosystems of Europe ( Abax parallelepipedus (Pill. & Mitt.), Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (F.), Pterostichus burmeisteri (Heer.)). The study sites comprised comparable age classes, i.e., young stands, mature stands, and mature forests with upcoming and established natural regeneration of four different forest types, namely pure stands of spruce and Douglas fir, and mixed stands of spruce-beech and oak-beech. As an indicator for the reproductive rate of female beetles, the number of ripe eggs in the ovaries and the duration of the reproduction period were investigated from captures of pitfall trapping (n = 8 per site). The dissection of a total of 1236 females uncovered 1704 eggs. A broad spectrum of environmental factors including microclimate (temperature, humidity, precipitation), soil parameters (moisture, pH, thickness and coverage of litter layer) and vegetation characteristics (coverage of moss, herb, grass, shrub and natural regeneration, degree of canopy closure) was assessed to reveal the relevant factors influencing the reproductive success.Within the forest types, the egg-load of the ground beetle species showed statistically significant relations to the age of the stand type. For A. parallelepipedus , a quite uniform reaction pattern was evident with significantly higher egg-loads in the mature forests compared to the young stands. This was accompanied by a longer duration of the reproduction period. A stronger influence of the forest type was obvious for the egg-load of Pt. oblongopunctatus and Pt. burmeisteri . The reproductive rate was generally increasing with temperature aspects in forest sites and was significantly influenced by moisture parameters. The mean maximum temperature of the habitat cared for most of the variation in A. parallelepipedus (61.4%), while the mean minimum temperature explained 60.7% of the reproductive potential in Pt. oblongopunctatus . The variation of Pt. burmeisteri was best explained by the humidity of the air (49.4%). Thus, the results of our study emphasize the role of abiotic parameters on the reproductive rate of ground beetles.

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Community Ecology
Authors: J. Madrigal-González, J. García-Rodríguez, A. Puerto-Martín, B. Fernández-Santos, and P. Alonso-Rojo

-Calabuig. 2008. Post-fire natural regeneration of a Pinus pinaster forest in NW Spain. Plant Ecol. 197: 81–90. Luis-Calabuig E. Post-fire natural regeneration of a Pinus pinaster

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enhance biomass production. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Research Paper : 1–6. Devine, W.D. and T.B. Harrington. 2008. Belowground competition influences growth of natural regeneration in

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struture dynamics for tree and shrub natural regeneration understory within pure stands of Mimosa scabrella Bentham . planted on a mined-out site at Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. Rev. Árvore 29 ( 1 ): 35 – 46

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. Restoration versus natural regeneration in a neotropical mangrove: Effects on plant biomass and crab communities . Ocean Coast. Manage. 110 : 38 – 45 . Ferreira , A.C. , L.E.A. Bezerra

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