Authors:Réka Csicsaiová, Štefan Stanko, and Mária Dubcová
The implementation of Directive 91/271/ECC concerning Urban Wastewater Treatment, leads to increase in the number of waste water treatment plants in Slovakia.The contribution is aimed at assessing the environmental impacts of the wastewater treatment process within the wastewater treatment plant using life cycle assessment. Life cycle assessment is an optional environmental management tool that focuses on the entire life cycle of a product and uses assessment methods to determinate adverse environmental impacts. The assessment of wastewater treatment plant is focused to the analysis of the individual factors identified by the physical-chemical analysis of wastewater. The correct application of the ISO 14040 standard assigns the accuracy of the analysis results and determines the individual elements of the system. Based on this ISO standard the system boundaries, the functional unit and the subsystems are defined.
Authors:István Szűcs, Andrea Bauerné Gáthy, Angéla Soltész, and Laura Mihály-Karnai
already found that foods whose consumption should be reduced due to their harmful health effects are generally foods with a higher environmental load [ 4–6 ]. The negativeenvironmentalimpacts associated with food consumption are significant especially
Authors:Anikó Kovács, Lilla Körmendi, and Katalin Badakné Kerti
One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).
Microflow systems play an important role in biocatalyst screening and evolution, as well as in high-throughput biocatalytic process development enabling in-operando optimization of process parameters. Novel