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Water content of dry sausages may decrease due to improper ripening and storage as well. As a consequence, an outer crust appears on the surface of the products. The aim of the industry is either to eliminate the presence of outer crust, or decrease its occurrence. The thickness of outer crust can be estimated by non-destructive ultrasound technique. As the propagation time and attenuation of ultrasonic waves vary in the materials with different water content, the thickness of outer crust and the normal texture, respectively, can be estimated on the basis of these characteristics. The propagation and attenuation values are typical for the given layers. Thus, by measuring total attenuation and total width of the product, the thickness of outer crust can be calculated by means of the velocity and attenuation coefficients of ultrasonic waves. Results of this non-destructive measurement may support the proper adjustment of ripening and storage parameters such as temperature and humidity.

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Authors: Mykola Sysyn, Vitalii Kovalchuk, Ulf Gerber, Olga Nabochenko and Andriy Pentsak

Abstract

Railway ballast tamping is one of the cost-expensive renewal and maintenance works of railway superstructure. The quality of ballast consolidation influences its resistance to residual deformations and long-term deterioration of track geometry. The process of ballast compaction along the sleeper under the vibration loading is complex and depends on many factors. The ballast flow processes under the vibration loading can produce both consolidation and un-consolidation of ballast material. The present study is devoted to the experimental investigation of ballast consolidation inhomogeneity. The method of ballast local consolidation measurement is proposed. The method is based on the velocity of impact wave propagation that is measured with device. The application of modern microcontroller and sensor techniques provided simple and reliable multi-point velocity measurements in a ballast layer. That enables well enough spatial resolution of ballast consolidation inhomogeneity. The measurement analysis has shown more than 4 times higher consolidation under the sleeper center than for unconsolidated ballast.

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Felföldi , J. & Ignát , T. (1999): Dynamic method for quick and non-destructive measurement of the surface firmness of fruits and vegetables. Hungarian Agricultural Engineering , 12 , 29–30. Ignát T

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) Dynamic method for quick and non-destructive measurement of the surface firmness of fruits and vegetables. Hungarian Agricultural Engineering 12 , 29 – 30 . Felföldi , J. and A

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. I. (2006) Non-destructive measurement of bitter pit in apple fruit using NIR hyperspectral imaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology , Volume 40, Issue 1, 1–6. Theron K. I

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