Authors:Owen Drury, Miguel Velazquez, Jonathan Dreyer, and Stephan Friedrich
We are developing superconducting ultrahigh resolution gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials,
and specifically for spent fuel characterization in nuclear safeguards. The detectors offer an energy resolution below 100 eV
FWHM at 100 keV, and can therefore significantly increase the precision of NDA at low energies where line overlap affects
the errors of the measurement when using germanium detectors. They also increase the peak-to-background ratio and thus improve
the detection limits for weak gamma emissions from the fissile Pu and U isotopes at low energy in the presence of an intense
Compton background from the fission products in spent fuel. Here we demonstrate high energy resolution and high peak-to-background
ratio of our superconducting Gamma detectors, and discuss their relevance for measuring actinides in spent nuclear fuel.
Authors:R. Jakopič, A. Verbruggen, R. Eykens, F. Kehoe, H. Kühn, Y. Kushigeta, U. Jacobsson, J. Bauwens, S. Richter, R. Wellum, and Y. Aregbe
In nuclear safeguards, precise and accurate isotopic analyses are needed for two major elements from the nuclear fuel cycle:
uranium and plutonium. This can be achieved by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which is one of the most reliable
analytical techniques for the determination of plutonium amount content to a high level of accuracy. In order to achieve reliable
isotope measurements isotopic reference materials with certified amount of plutonium and isotopic composition are required.
At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) various plutonium spike reference materials for isotopes
239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu are available. This enabled the setup of an inter-calibration campaign inter-linking selected plutonium spikes on a metrological
basis applying state-of-the-art measurement procedures. The aim of this campaign is threefold: firstly to perform measurements
on selected plutonium spike isotopic reference materials for quality control purposes, secondly to verify the amount content
and the isotopic composition of the recently produced IRMM-1027m large sized dried (LSD) spikes and thirdly to demonstrate
IRMM’s measurement capabilities for plutonium analysis via external quality tools. The obtained results using various spike
isotopic reference materials will be presented and discussed in this paper. The measurement uncertainties of the IDMS results
were calculated according to the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM).
Environmental sampling (ES) is one of the measures applied in international nuclear safeguards. The detection capability of
safeguards ES relies on a combination of highly sensitive analytical techniques and resourceful data evaluation. The evaluation
process is dynamic, employing a variety of tools, information and analytical results. While the presence of uranium or plutonium
may be a significant finding in itself, high quality isotopic measurements are essential to associate the material with a
specific nuclear activity. This is illustrated in cases where the uranium detected appears to be “natural” or “near-natural”,
but in fact can be identified with various nuclear processes.
Understanding how environmental conditions may affect sample composition is critical to the interpretation of laboratory analyses
from environmental sampling. We prepared a set of UO2F2 particle samples from the hydrolysis of UF6 and stored these samples in environmental chambers at different temperature, humidity and lighting conditions. The NanoSIMS
ion microprobe was used to measure the UF+/U+ secondary ion ratio of individual particles. Monitoring variations in this ratio may provide insights on changes in particle
composition over time and in response to environmental exposure. This report presents the baseline measurements carried out
on freshly-prepared particle samples to determine the initial amount of fluorine.
A new neutron activation technique has been developed for the determination of uranium element concentration and235U isotope abundance in nuclear safeguards and reference material samples based on the activation of bare and cadmium-covered samples with different thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratios and on the combination of the two corre-sponding delayed-fission neutron measurements. The principle of the new technique can be applied also to improve multi-element neutron activation analysis.
An advanced neutron activation technique has been developed for the accurate analysis of elemental and isotopic fissile material required in nuclear safeguards, nuclear material standardization and other applications. It is based on reactor neutron flux spectrum differentiation by cadmium screening and multistandard calibration, including the solution of a second order equation system or of computerized calibration curve fitting, taking into account the thermal neutron flux depression. Some discrepancies at high enrichments have still to be eliminated in order to achieve the required measurement accuracy.
Authors:K. Mathew, S. Bürger, S. Vogt, P. Mason, M. Morales-Arteaga, and U. Narayanan
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) was developed
to meet the demand for a standardized way of evaluating and expressing uncertainties. The Davies and Gray (D&G) titrimetry
method is routinely used in nuclear safeguards for uranium accountability measurement and a statement of the uncertainty that
can reasonably be attributed to the measured assay value is therefore of importance. A mathematical model for an uncertainty
evaluation of D&G measurements in compliance with ISO GUM is presented. This is illustrated by a numerical example and the
utilization of the uncertainty budget is explored.
Authors:Yan Chen, Zhi-yuan Chang, Yong-gang Zhao, Ji-long Zhang, Jing-huai Li, and Fu-jun Shu
An isotope dilution multicollector inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-MC-ICP-MS) method for determining age of
trace Pu through measuring 241Pu/241Am, 240Pu/236U ratio was established. At the same time, other two methods-α-spectrometry combined with MC-ICP-MS and liquid scintillator
combined with α-spectrometry through measuring 241Pu/241Am ratio to determine the age of trace Pu were also studied. The techniques were explored for the age determination of nanogram
grade Pu sample on the basis of Pu/Am, Pu/U separation. The ages of two Pu samples—one with known and the other with unknown
age—were determined by the three methods. The determined ages by the three methods were all in agreement with the reference
value. The established methods for determining the age of trace Pu could be adopted in the verification activities of nuclear
safeguards and nuclear arms control.
Authors:Weihua Zhang, Kurt Ungar, Ian Hoffman, and Ryan Lawrie
To support interpretation of observed atmospheric krypton radioisotopes, a database of krypton radioisotope in the primary
coolant of CANDU reactors has been established. This database is comprised of 40,000 records of high-quality 89Kr, 87Kr, 88Kr and 85mKr analyses. Records from the database were retrieved by a specifically designed data-mining module and subjected to further
analysis. Results from the analysis were subsequently used to study isotopic ratios of observed krypton radioisotopes in the
CANDU reactor primary coolant. These studies provided practical information on the characterization of CANDU reactor krypton
radioisotope, which can potentially be used to discriminate between reactor effluent and fuel reprocessing for nuclear safeguard
85Kr monitoring applications (Kalinowski et al., J Environ Radioact 73:203, 2004). The study also has some potential application
to Fissile material cut-off treaty.
Isotopic correlation analysis is believed to make possible quick and accurate determinations of nuclear fuel parameters for
reactor operation, reprocessing, fuel management and nuclear safeguards. Correlation dependencies have been found between
ratios of fission products on the one hand and isotope ratios of the heavy elements on the other hand. The use of the154Eu/155Eu ratio in correlation analysis was proposed by SMULEK. The scope of useful applications of this isotopic ratio has been
further investigated. A quick and time-saving method to measure the154Eu/155Eu ratio has been elaborated. The atomic ratios have been found by internal calibration using the computer programme ABSINT.
Beside this the atomic ratios of154Eu/155Eu as a function of nuclear fuel burn-up have been calculated using the computer programme ISOTOP.
The correlation between the154Eu/155Eu ratio and nuclear fuel burn-up is best approximated by a quadratic function. Up to a burn-up of 1% fima a linear function
can be used.