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general formula M 2 FeV 3 O 11 has been obtained [ 4 – 8 ]. Phases Zn 2 FeV 3 O 11 and Mg 2 FeV 3 O 11 are isostructural [ 8 , 9 ] and, what is very important, in their structures isolated VO 4 tetrahedra can be distinguished. Considering approximate

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Abstract  

It has been demonstrated that Co2V2O7 and InVO4 react with each other forming a new compound of the Co2InV3O11 formula, when their molar ratio is equal to 1:1, or among CoCO3, In2O3 and V2O5, mixed at a molar ratio of 4:1:3. This compound melts incongruently at the temperature of 960±5°C, depositing crystals of InVO4. It crystallizes in the triclinic system and the unit cell parameters amount to: a=0.6524(6) nm, b=0.6885(5) nm, c=1.0290(4) nm, α=96.5°, β=104.1°, γ=100.9°, Z=2. The phase equilibria being established in the Co2V2O7–InVO4 system over the whole components concentration range up to the solidus line were described.

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The temperature dependence of the molar heat capacities of the tellurites Fe2(TeO3)3, Fe2TeO5 and Fe2Te4O11 were determined. By statistical manipulation of the values obtained, the parameters in the equations for the corresponding compounds showing this dependence were determined using the least-squares method. These equations together with the standard molar entropies were used to determine the thermodynamic functions Δ0 T S m 0, ΔT T,H m 0 and (Φm 0 + Δ0 T’ H m 0 / T) for T’=298.15 K.

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Although the reaction products are unstable at the reaction temperatures, at a heating rate of 2 deg·min−1 ammonium peroxo vanadate, (NH4)4V2O11, decomposes to (NH4)[VO (O2)2 (NH3)] (above 93°C); this in turn decomposes to (NH4) [VO3 (NH3)] (above 106°C) and then to ammonium metavanadate (above 145°C). On further heating vanadium pentoxide is formed above 320°C. The first decomposition reaction occurs in a single step and the Avrami-Erofeev equation withn=2 fits the decomposition data best. An activation energy of 148.8 kJ·mol−1 and a ln(A) value of 42.2 are calculated for this reaction by the isothermal analysis method. An average value of 144 kJ·mol−1 is calculated for the first decomposition reaction using the dynamic heating data and the transformation-degree dependence of temperature at different heating rates.

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The crisis of 2008–2009 has ended, stockmarkets skyrocketed in 2012–2013, while growth of the real sector remained sluggish in Europe. This article attempts to explain the latter puzzle. Analyzing long term factors, the costs of short-termism in crisis management become obvious. The limitations of EU as a growth engine are highlighted.

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This paper develops a simple model that helps understand an important fact concerning cross-country pattern of growth and institutions shown by BenYishay and Betancourt (2010). They show that civil freedoms, especially one of their components called Autonomy and Individual Rights, are more important determinants of economic development than constraints on executives, a widely used measure in the literature on institutions and growth. The paper provides an interpretation of this fact through the lense of an argument that puts emphasis on three insights. The first is that civil freedoms can be seen as property rights broadly understood. The second is that with a higher scope of property rights enforced, the government must be able to commit to a lower level of expropriation of income. Third, institutions of freedom are sticky: they must be in line with the culture of the country so that they can be enforced with a reasonable cost. By addressing this specific question of constraints on executives versus civil freedoms the paper joins the literature which emphasizes the importance of culture in economic development.

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This paper evaluates income convergence in the European Union, between “old” (EU15) and “new” member states from Central and East Europe (CEE10), and among the countries within these two groups. The GDP per capita convergence should be expected according to the exogenous economic growth model and neoclassical trade theory. The presence of σ-convergence and both absolute and conditional β-convergence is tested for on a sample of 25 European Union countries (EU25). Results confirm the existence of β-convergence of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity among EU25, but not among EU15 and CEE10 countries. σ-convergence has been confirmed among EU25 and CEE10 countries, while GDP per capita has been diverging in the EU15 group of countries. Moreover, the results reveal that recent economic crisis has reversed long-term tendencies and led to income convergence within EU15 and divergence within CEE10. During the crisis, the income differences among the EU25 countries have increased, but the scope and duration of this effect has been limited and has not affected the long term convergence path. However, the obtained long term speed of convergence is significantly lower compared with the previous researches.

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The paper aims to develop a model of nonlinear economic growth — with simple assumptions — which explains both Japan’s S -shape convergence path and the UK’s declining path toward the US between 1870–2000, and the development of other countries, as well as post-war reconstruction. According to the model, progress in stock of knowledge is formed by a quadratic formula of the relative development of follower countries.The model draws on four recent theories. Firstly, Romer’s theory, which approaches a country’s level of development by using the number of its products (Romer 1990), secondly, Jones’ idea theory with a slight modification (Jones 2004), third, the theory of quality of institutions, which determines economic performance (North 1993), and finally, the theory of physical and human capital. The first part of the paper sets up the production function, the second determines the growth rate and analyses the reconstruction path, while the third draws up model forecasts.

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According to the consensus view, it was primarily physical capital accumulation that drove economic growth during the early years of state socialism. Growth models incorporating both human and physical capital accumulation led to the conclusion that a high physical/human capital ratio can cause a lower economic growth in the long run, hence offering an explanation for the failure of socialist economies. In this paper, we show theoretically and empirically that according to the logic of the socialist planner, it was optimal to achieve a higher physical to human capital ratio in socialist countries than in the West. Using a VAR analysis, we find empirical confirmation that within the Material Product System of national accounting, the relative dominance of investment in physical capital accumulation relative to human capital was indeed more efficient than under the system of national accounts.

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