The fight against the shadow economy and tax evasion is among priority policy objectives in most developed countries. In addition to causing significant budget revenue shortfalls, the shadow economy and tax evasion distort the quality of statistics and market competition. Based on the theoretical and empirical literature, this paper presents the underlying reasons behind the shadow economy and estimates on the size of the shadow economy in Hungary. Furthermore, it draws conclusions on the whitening effects of recent policy measures, based on the most recent statistics of the National Labour Office and the retail sales statistics.
This paper starts with some definitions and concepts to clarify what we have in mind when we talk about economic institutions and the political economy of transition. Much discussion of the area is characterised by ambiguity and confusion, and while there are many partial theories of institutions covering specific cases, we still lack an all encompassing theory. The institutions important for transition are introduced next, this discussion helping to make clear the critical distinction between institutions per se, and the concrete organisational and legal forms through which they are implemented in particular country settings. For those transition economies that have already joined, or wish to join the EU, this includes some remarks on the acquis communautaire. Some empirical evidence on the role of institutions in facilitating transition and fostering post-socialist economic growth is then reviewed, finding support for the rule of law, secure property rights (ownership and business contracts) and liberal trade. As an aside to the main argument, a brief account of possible directions of institutional reform in North Korea is presented. Finally, the concluding section outlines what transition has taught us about the roles of institutions in economic life, and highlights some important unsettled issues, including the problem of embedding new institutions in different cultural settings.
The relationship between education and country-risk is an almost neglected question in economic literature, despite the several reasons for which these two issues could be related. In a recent article by Sequeira — Ferraz (2009) a linear relationship is documented. The present article provides evidence that the strength of the relationship between country-risk and education decreases for higher levels of GDP. It also proves that this decrease consistently applies for secondary and tertiary education levels and for the three types of risk considered: economic, financial and political. The relationship obtained here is quite robust across the different subcomponents of country-risk.
This paper investigates how social capital contributes to the pro-social behaviour of individuals in a post-conflict environment. I simultaneously investigate the pro-social behaviours in the periods of crisis (floods) and normality and observe whether (structural and relational) social capital has important influences in these two different times. The main novelty of this approach is that I model individuals' pro-social behaviours jointly for both the periods in focus and treat them as systematic outcomes of observed and unobserved (endogenous) influences. I find that more pro-social activities in the normal times are positively associated with such activities in the crisis period. Additionally, the results reveal the importance of (structural) social capital on pro-social behaviour – namely, group membership, size and ethnic structure of individual networks matter. Of particular interest for this post-conflict society and related literature is that greater ethnic diversity of individual networks is supportive for pro-social engagement of citizens. Finally, among the observed economic influences, I find that the respondents working in the informal economy report more pro-social activities while formal employment works more as financial intermediary for these engagements.
One factor that contributes in the size of the shadow economy is the regulation of business activities. This paper provides empirical analysis of the effects of regulatory discretion on the unofficial economy. It adds to the previous findings by gathering evidence from a large data set of 162 countries for the 1999 to 2007 period. Going beyond simple correlation, it uses the Arellano-Bond estimator to investigate the dynamics and causal effects of regulation on the shadow economy. We find that increase in regulation increases the size of the shadow economy.
Authors:B. Hámori, K. Szabó, A. Derecskei, H. Hurta, and L. Tóth
The basic institutions and legal frames of a market economy were established quite quickly after the regime change in East-Central Europe, including Hungary. But there has been a much slower change in the behaviour of economic actors. The purpose of the research was to show the extent to which the competitive attitude and the cooperative behaviour both essential to market economies have developed in the nearly two decades since the regime change.* Are the actors in the economy capable of a positive response to the appearance of foreign competitors, or has the old, anti-competitive attitude still been prevailing? How is the behaviour of the competitors influenced by state intervention? The answers to these questions are based on 71 semi-structured interviews and on their comparison to the data of some international surveys. In the paper we were searching for links between the picture developing from the interviews and the age of the interviewees, the market position and the size of their firms.
The progress of post-socialist systemic transformation should be evaluated through the prism of its influence on a country’s development abilities. During twenty years of comprehensive systemic shift, gross domestic product has increased only to a limited degree, on a par with the growth of the world economy. While judging the transformation progress, not only the improvement of competitiveness and growth in terms of quantity must be taken into account, but also social and cultural aspects. Had there been a better policy co-ordination of systemic change and socio-economic development, GDP could have increased by a considerable amount more. This opportunity has been missed due to the implementation of sub-optimal if not just wrong economic policies based on wrong economic theories and the lack of ability of the ruling elites to overrun the conflicts of interests.
Over 1.8 billion people — from Central Europe to East Asia — have been involved in the great systemic transformation to market economy, civic society and democracy, lasting already a generation. The process has evolved more by chance than by design, and has brought mixed fruits. The diversification of the current situation is a result of both the legacy from the past and the different strategies and policies executed in particular countries over subsequent periods. These polices have been based on different assumptions and followed the advises of alternative schools of economic thought. Consequently, there are theoretical lessons to learn, as well as policy implications, from this vast experience. The paper, written from the comparative perspective and exercising counterfactual history analyses of the multi-track process of the great Post-Communist change during the last two decades, provides some forecasts and propositions for the next generation.
Authors:S. Aukkaravittayapun, C. Thanachayanont, T. Theapsiri, W. Veerasai, Y. Sawada, T. Kondo, S. Tokiwa, and T. Nishide
Fluorine-doped tin dioxide
(FTO) films were deposited on silicon wafers by inverted pyrosol technique
using solutions with different doping concentration (F/Sn=0.00, 0.12, 0.75
and 2.50). The physical and electrical properties of the deposited films were
analyzed by SEM, XRF, resistivity measurement by four-point-probe method and
Hall coefficient measurement by van der Pauw method. The electrical properties
showed that the FTO film deposited using the solution with F/Sn=0.75 gave
a lowest resistivity of 3.210–4 ohm
cm. The FTO films were analyzed by temperature programmed desorption (TPD).
Evolved gases from the heated specimens were detected using a quadruple mass
analyzer for mass fragments m/z, 1(H+),
16(O+), 17(OH+ or NH3+),
18(H2O+ or NH4+),
19(F+), 20(HF+), 28(CO+
or N2+), 32(O2+),
and 152(SnO2+). The majority
of evolved gases from all FTO films were water vapor, carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide. Fluorine (m/z 19) was detected
only in doped films and its intensity was very strong for highly-doped films
at temperature above 400C.
Authors:S. Hayami, S. Nomiyama, S. Hirose, Y. Yano, S. Osaki, and Y. Maeda
A barium-iron(III) [BaFe(cr-salen)(py)2](ClO4)3 (1) was prepared and an iron(III) complex [Fe(cr-salen)(py)2]ClO4 (2) complex was obtained by removing Ba2+ ion from the barium-iron(III) complexes with guanidinium sulfate. These complexes are in the high-spin state both in the
solid state and in acetonitrile. Single crystals of [BaFe(cr-salen)(MeOH)2]2O(ClO4)4·2MeOH (3) were obtained by slow evaporation of a solution of (2) and Ba(ClO4)2, and the single crystal X-ray structure of (3) was determined: Crystal data for [BaFe(cr-salen)(MeOH)2]4O2(ClO4)4·2MeOH: C25H36N2O17.5Cl2BaFe, are: space group C2/c, Z=8, a=24.79(7) Å, b=16.11(6) Å, c=17.24(6) Å, V=6753(36) Å3, R=0.133, Rw=0.154. The structure of the complex has a one order polymeric chain. An iron atom is located in a cavity of square pyramidal
geometry and bridged by an oxygen atom of μ-oxo. A barium ion is sitted in a quasi-crownether ring and bridged by two perchlorate