It has been established by XRD, DTA and TG methods that phases of solid solution type of MoO3 in SbVO5 are formed in the system V2O5-MoO3-a-Sb2O4. The Mo6+ ions are incorporated into the crystal lattice of SbVO5 instead of both Sb5+ and V5+, while the charge compensation occurs by a formation of cation defects (□) at Sb5+ and V5+. The phases Sb1-6x□xV1-6x□xMo10xO5 are stable in the solid-state up to 69010C and the limit of solubility of MoO3 in SbVO5 does not exceed 20.00 mol%.
Authors:Wojciech Kisiała, Artur Bajerski and Bartosz Stępiński
This article seeks to assess how the absorption of European the Union funds by the Polish voivodeships reflects two basic types of strategy in their allocation, i.e. the polarising and the equalising model. The analysis embraced 16 regional operational programmes (ROPs) between 2007–2013. The frame of reference adopted in the research was the centre-periphery model. Classes of peripherality were distinguished for each voivodeship, and absorption profiles of EU funds were determined for areas differing in their levels of peripherality. The goal of the article was achieved in a multi-stage research procedure ending in the construction of a synthetic index of the spatial orientation of support within the ROPs. The analysis demonstrated that the features of the polarising model tended to predominate in intra-regional policy. In most cases, however, the distribution of EU support represented a mixed model, with a shift towards the polarising one.
Authors:Éva Komlósi, László Szerb, Zoltán J. Ács and Raquel Ortega-Argilés
This paper presents a regional application of the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) methodology of Acs et al. (2013) to examine the level of entrepreneurship across Hungary’s seven NUTS-2 level regions between 2006 and 2012. The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index (REDI) has been constructed for capturing the individual efforts, and their contextual features, of entrepreneurship across regions. The REDI method builds on a Systems of Entrepreneurship Theory and provides a way to profile Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship. Important aspects of the REDI method include the Penalty for Bottleneck analysis, which helps in identifying constraining factors in Regional Systems of Entrepreneurship, and Policy Portfolio Optimisation analysis, which helps policymakers consider trade-offs between alternative policy scenarios and associated allocations of policy resources. The paper describes the entrepreneurial disparities amongst Hungarian regions and provides public policy suggestions to improve the level of entrepreneurship and to optimise resource allocation over the 14 pillars of entrepreneurship in the seven Hungarian regions.
Authors:Péter Földvári, Bas van Leeuwen and Dmitry Didenko
According to the consensus view, it was primarily physical capital accumulation that drove economic growth during the early years of state socialism. Growth models incorporating both human and physical capital accumulation led to the conclusion that a high physical/human capital ratio can cause a lower economic growth in the long run, hence offering an explanation for the failure of socialist economies. In this paper, we show theoretically and empirically that according to the logic of the socialist planner, it was optimal to achieve a higher physical to human capital ratio in socialist countries than in the West. Using a VAR analysis, we find empirical confirmation that within the Material Product System of national accounting, the relative dominance of investment in physical capital accumulation relative to human capital was indeed more efficient than under the system of national accounts.
Authors:Korneliusz Pylak, Elżbieta Wojnicka-Sycz and Piotr Sycz
The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in the determinants of successful transition (understood as the creation of a new development path) between the eastern and the western EU Member States between 1994 and 2014 and elaborate assumptions for a strategy of constructing regional advantage for them at the NUTS2 level. We find that the regional transition requires individual approaches to using comparative advantage at the beginning of the process and then competing with specific advantages that can be consciously constructed throughout the process. Therefore, we hypothesise that a successful transition requires constructing regional advantages based on the knowledge-related factors, leading to specialisation in the knowledge-intensive industries. Furthermore, we state that the way of constructing such advantages differs across the regions. All of our hypotheses were confirmed. Both groups of regions had different comparative advantages at the beginning of the period and constructed competitive advantage based on related knowledge-intensive industries, leading to their specialisation. Interestingly, although the process of building regional advantage was similar, the factors used to create it were different, had a different impact on GDP growth and led to a different specialisation.
The use of XRD and DTA methods has allowed studies on the interaction of the SbVO5 and MoO3, taking place in the solid state and in the medium of ambient air. The experimental results of XRD and DTA for all the samples
showed the presence of a novel phase, i.e. Sb3V2Mo3O21 apart from various amounts of MoO3 and V9Mo6O40 or SbVO5 and V2O5(s.s.). The SbVO5–MoO3 system is not a real two-component system over the entire range of component concentrations up to the solidus line.
Authors:P. K. Sinhamahapatra and S. K. Bhattacharyya
Physicochemical properties of bismuth vanadate catalysts with varying compositions, e.g., Bi4V6O21-6 1/2H2O·121NH3; Bi6V2O14·3 H2O; Bi6V4O19·6 H2O have been studied by chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, infrared, X-ray diffraction, surface area and magnetic susceptibility techniques.
The semireduced form (Adr) of the anti-tumour agent adriamycin is implicated in cardiotoxic side effects. Adr, prepared by reduction with e
, has pK values at 2.9 and 9.2. In the pH range 6–11, Adr is relatively stable, existing in equilibrium with Adr and the hydroquinone, the latter subsequently losing the sugar within 100 ms. The E
of Adrais –328 mV, so at equilibrium the reaction O
+ AdrO2 + Adr lies well over to the left. The relative yields of O2(1
g) formed via energy transfer from triplet excited components of haematoporphyrin derivative, the drug used in photodynamic therapy, have been measured by observations of the phosphorescence emission at 1270 nm. The measurements suggest that the most active component, dihaematoporphyrin ether or ester, is comparatively ineffective itself photodynamically, but may serve as a pool for the more effective haematoporphyrin and hydroxyethylvinylporphyrin to act inside the cancer cell. One-electron oxidation of dopa, through N
or photoionization, leads to the melanin precursor dopachrome via dopasemiquinone and dopaquinone. The latter reacts with cysteine to form cysteinyldopa, a marker for malignant melanoma metastasis. N
—initiated oxidation of cysteinyldopa proceeds via a different mechanism involving the corresponding semiquinone, quinone and a quinone-imine which rearranges to a more stable benzothiazole.
Authors:Ray Frost, Sara Palmer and Laure-Marie Grand
Insight into the unique structure of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been obtained using a combination of X-ray diffraction
and thermal analysis. Indium containing hydrotalcites of formula Mg4In2(CO3)(OH)12·4H2O (2:1 In-LDH) through to Mg8In2(CO3)(OH)18·4H2O (4:1 In-LDH) with variation in the Mg:In ratio have been successfully synthesised. The d(003) spacing varied from 7.83 Å for the 2:1 LDH to 8.15 Å for the 3:1 indium containing LDH. Distinct mass loss steps attributed
to dehydration, dehydroxylation and decarbonation are observed for the indium containing hydrotalcite. Dehydration occurs
over the temperature range ambient to 205 °C. Dehydroxylation takes place in a series of steps over the 238–277 °C temperature
range. Decarbonation occurs between 763 and 795 °C. The dehydroxylation and decarbonation steps depend upon the Mg:In ratio.
The formation of indium containing hydrotalcites and their thermal activation provides a method for the synthesis of indium