Authors:L. Qiang-Guo, H. Yi, L. Xu, Y. Li-Juan, X. Sheng-Xiong, Y. De-Jun, and L. Yi
The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at
298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔrHmΘ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be ΔfHmΘ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.
Authors:L. Xu, Y. De-Jun, L. Qiang-Guo, L. Ai-Tao, Y. Li-Juan, J. Qian-Hong, and L. Yi
The product from reaction of samarium chloride hexahydrate with salicylic acid and Thioproline, [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimetric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [SmCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C4H7NO2S(s)] and [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H7NO2S)·H2O(s)] in a mixed solvent of absolute ethyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and 3 mol L−1 HCl were determined by calorimetry to be ΔsHmΦ[SmCl3 δ6H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −46.68±0.15 kJ mol−1 ΔsHmΦ[2C7H6O3 (s), 298.15 K]= 25.19±0.02 kJ mol−1, ΔsHmΦ[C4H7NO2S (s), 298.15 K]=16.20±0.17 kJ mol−1 and ΔsHmΦ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −81.24±0.67 kJ mol−1. The enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔsHmΦ =123.45±0.71 kJ mol−1. From date in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Sm(C7H5O3)2(C4H6NO2S)δ2H2O(s) was estimated to be ΔsHmΦ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O(s), 298.15 K]= −2912.03±3.10 kJ mol−1.
Authors:C. Santiago, A. R. Arnaiz, L. Lorente, J. M. Arrieta, and M. A. Martinez
The thermal behaviour of collidinium decatungstate with twoN,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) crystallization molecules was studied by thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters for the first stage of the thermal decomposition were established from isothermal and nonisothermal mass-change studies. The chemical reaction in this step is the loss of DMF: as confirmed by1H NMR.
While technological innovation is a core element of efforts to increase public welfare, innovators are rarely trained to take the societal dimensions of innovation into account in a systematic manner. Responsible innovation has emerged within policy discourses worldwide to address this challenge. Implementing responsible innovation in daily practices, however, requires addressing both the multidisciplinary and the culturally situated nature of innovation processes. Effectiveness of Socio-Technical Integration Research (STIR) has been tested, but primarily only in developed countries, raising questions about how well it works in innovation and cultural settings differing from Western cultures. Therefore, this study analyzes the possibities of institutionalizing responsible innovation in an Eastern European country, namely in Hungary. For this investigation, we conducted STIR-pilots in two Hungarian natural science research groups. The findings show that though the original STIR method can be adapted to support responsible innovation practices in Hungary, the differences in the innovation environment and culture (such as grant-driven innovation; lack of trust; less knowledge on responsible innovation; lack of law on the societical impacts of research and innovaton) require methodological modifications in order to improve STIR’s effectiveness.
Authors:Julie Callaert, Joris Grouwels, and Bart Van Looy
Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning algorithm that allows identifying scientific references in an automated manner. Using the obtained results, we analyze indicators based on NPRs, with a focus on the difference between NPR- and scientific non-patent references-based indicators. Differences between both indicators are significant and dependent on the considered patent system, the applicant country and the technological domain. These results signal the relevancy of delineating scientific references when using NPRs to assess the occurrence and impact of science–technology interactions.
The empirical studies in the area of Open Innovation (OI) reveal that there is a significant bias in favour of countries on the technological frontier. The present study aims to bridge this gap by examining firms in Portugal, a country at an intermediate stage of technological development. Based on 70 innovative firms, we found that whatever perspective of the OI model is considered, firms tend, on average, to share a relatively closed innovation model when compared with firms located in countries where technological development is advanced. About a quarter of the surveyed firms implemented the OI model in their innovation strategy/business, this being much more widely disseminated regarding the absorption of external knowledge/technology, with almost 40% of firms surveyed acknowledging its use in comparison with the perspective of transfer of knowledge/technology to other organisations — less than 10% provide their “surplus technology” to other organisations. This result may indicate a lack of awareness of the economic potential of making internally created technologies available to third parties, albeit this potential might also depend on other circumstances such as technology architecture (the system and interdependence of technologies).
In this paper, the convergence in R&D expenditure across 21 European Union countries is examined by applying fractional integration analysis. Data are annual and cover the period 1990–2010. Results show that there is certain degree of convergence in R&D intensity. However, the speed of the convergence varies across countries. For most of the countries, the speed of convergence is higher in the R&D expenditures of governments than in the R&D expenditures of higher education institutions and businesses. Differences in the speed of convergence could be explained by differences in industry structures, in cultural trajectories, in macroeconomic conditions, or in internationalisation. The more dissimilar countries are in terms of these factors the more likely they are to have divergent paths. Furthermore, differences in R&D convergence by institutional sectors could be due to the different goals of each sector and to the relative weight of each sector in the entire economy.
The purpose of this paper is to implement the regularities of product innovation in the field of marketing. The article takes a look at the different understandings of the concept of marketing innovation and it states that although the innovation concept is widely discussed in marketing literature, it lacks one important element: the “missing link” is an analysis of the relation between product innovation and marketing innovation. The paper discusses the different patterns of innovation and points out that the marketing of a product category displays a similar evolution cycle. Using the dominant product-form analogy, the author presents his hypothesis about the existence of a dominant marketing mix. He argues that as the dominant product form emerges, it is accompanied by a dominant marketing form, and he states that such standardised marketing will dominate the scene until the next discontinuous innovation.
The Hungarian economy is highly integrated in global value chains (GVC). Upgrading within GVCs is a key factor of sustaining the initial developmental push GVC participation provides. The article concentrates on R&D-based upgrading opportunities and their practical implementation by multinationals’ Hungarian subsidiaries in the automotive and electronics sectors. The content and the development of R&D activities; Hungary’s locational advantages for R&D projects, and their local impact are analysed based on interviews with twenty foreign-owned companies in the two selected sectors. We show that local R&D units’ activity is multifaceted, though they feature similar upgrading trajectories. Investors’ motivations: the knowledge- and efficiency-seeking nature of their projects and the related locational advantages are examined. We demonstrate that local R&D-intensive subsidiaries have a limited local impact except for the intensive contacts with local universities — with varying content and motives on the side of the R&D units. Drawing on our findings we formulate economic policy recommendations about the ways to foster and enhance R&D-based upgrading.