Authors:Pawel Mierczynski, Tomasz P. Maniecki, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, and Wojciech K. Jozwiak
A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of Cu/Cr2O3·3Al2O3 and Au–Cu/Cr2O3·3Al2O3 supported catalysts and their catalytic activity in methanol synthesis and water gas shift reactions were the main subject of this study. The promotion effect of gold addition to Cu/support catalysts in the methanol synthesis reaction was proved. The formation of an Au–Cu alloy was confirmed by XRD technique. Methanol selectivity increased after gold introduction onto the catalyst surface, which can be explained by the creation of nucleation centers for copper crystallization by metallic gold particles during catalyst reduction.
Authors:C. Crăciun, L. David, D. Rusu, M. Rusu, O. Cozar, and G. Marcu
The sandwich-type uranium(IV)-polyoxometalate Na6 [U3 (SbW9 O33 )2 ]·22H2 O was prepared and investigated by FT-IR and UV-VIS methods. The uranium(IV) coordination at the trilacunary Keggin units shifts the
as (W-Ob,c -W),
as (W=Od ),
as (W-Oa ) antisymmetric stretching vibration bands in the 700 ÷ 950 cm-1 region of the FT-IR spectrum of U(IV)-complex. The visible electronic absorption spectrum of the complex indicates a 3 H4 electronic ground state of uranium ions and a quasicubic local symmetry around them. The UV electronic spectra of the U(IV)-POM complex and of the ligand present the broad bands assigned to p -d electronic transitions in the W=O bonds (at 46640 cm-1 for the ligand and 47280 cm-1 for the complex) and d -p -d transitions in tricentric W-O-W bonds (at 40880 cm-1 for the ligand and 39920 cm-1 for the complex).
Authors:Patricio Pérez, Marta Bengoa, and Adolfo Fernández
This paper uses the Jones (1995) framework to examine the contribution of imitation activities and innovative research effort on productivity growth for the US and some European leading economies. We carry out a comparative analysis for the last 50 years, with two model specifications, assuming country differences in the parameters associated with R&D effort. In the first one, the technological frontier position is determined by the country with the highest productivity, the United States. Alternatively, in the second specification, we alter the definition of the technological frontier, allowing it to transcend the leader. The empirical analysis leads to very different outcomes. The first specification estimation, using GMM techniques, indicates that American researchers are more technology growth enhancing than their European counterparts. In contrast, the results obtained for the second, using Kalman’s filter, show that when using an alternative definition of technological frontier, it is possible to observe a boost in innovation that reduces the dispersion among countries. Then, the leading European countries can take advantage; in this case, Germany exhibits the best performance, followed by the US.
Throughout the reform process of the European university system, the importance of collaboration between actors at the academy and other areas of the economy and society are ever increasing, as evidenced by a growing number of co-authored articles and the number of citations to such works.This article analyses the characteristics of publications co-authored by Hungarian university researchers with non-academic partners. Scientometric indicators are used as primary methodological tools. Our sample was the publication output of 12 universities, which covers 90% of the university sphere’s publications, between 2001 and 2005 and was taken from the publications of Hungarian institutions of higher education appearing in the Web of Science database. The authors employed a new, important aspect in the cooperation activity of Hungarian universities: their connection with the non-academic partners. The selection and the institutional location of the co-authors resulted in an important database for further analysis. Based on the empirical analysis of the publication and citation performance data of 12 such universities the authors concluded that the proportion of citations to publications co-authored with either academic or non-academic partners is significantly higher for international partners than it is for Hungarian ones. For one publication, the proportion of citations to articles co-authored with foreign non-academic partners, such as firms or health care institutions, was five times higher than the number relating to papers co-authored with Hungarian firms or health care institutions. Higher citedness of the joint articles with the foreign country institutes than domestic partners are in harmony with observation in other countries. Generally the rate of the co-authored articles with non-academic partners is rather low. However it scatters to a great extent concerning the different universities. The presence or absence of medicine in the profile of the universities seems an important factor of that difference.
The empirical studies in the area of Open Innovation (OI) reveal that there is a significant bias in favour of countries on the technological frontier. The present study aims to bridge this gap by examining firms in Portugal, a country at an intermediate stage of technological development. Based on 70 innovative firms, we found that whatever perspective of the OI model is considered, firms tend, on average, to share a relatively closed innovation model when compared with firms located in countries where technological development is advanced. About a quarter of the surveyed firms implemented the OI model in their innovation strategy/business, this being much more widely disseminated regarding the absorption of external knowledge/technology, with almost 40% of firms surveyed acknowledging its use in comparison with the perspective of transfer of knowledge/technology to other organisations — less than 10% provide their “surplus technology” to other organisations. This result may indicate a lack of awareness of the economic potential of making internally created technologies available to third parties, albeit this potential might also depend on other circumstances such as technology architecture (the system and interdependence of technologies).
We argue that the information technology revolution has brought about the differentiation of secular capital-using and labour-saving direction of technical change. Based on the example of the US manufacturing industry, asset and sector specific differences in the bias of technical change are documented. While the clear ICT- and intangible capital-using bias of technical change is well-documented in the literature, this paper provides evidence for the non-ICT capital-saving bias of technical change in the fifth Kondratieff cycle. In the past decade the US manufacturing sector displayed a noticeable deceleration of capital accumulation and capital intensity increase, a trend that diverges from the one observed in the other two sectors of the economy: in agriculture and in services. Non-ICT capital-saving technical change provokes increasing divergence between the development strategies of technological followers (characterised by tangible investment-led growth, and increasing capital-output ratios), and of technological leaders (marked by increasing intangible capital-intensity and diminishing tangible capital-intensity).
Diversification of R&D projects not only can reduce overall risk, but also can create value-enhancement effect. A useful guideline for optimal diversification of R&D projects is important to R&D organizations. This paper extends financial portfolio analyses for R&D management particularly incorporating the technology risk. This study uses a survival model to describe the technology risk since termination of an R&D project can be caused by any technology risk factors. A formula of optimal R&D resource allocation that can dynamically achieve the greatest diversification effect is offered. Furthermore we provide an alternative method for estimating correlations between R&D portfolios, which has a critical influence on diversification effect. The method can be useful in risk assessment when measure the exposure of R&D portfolio to particular sources of uncertainty. The evaluation framework for R&D portfolios optimization also can be applied in project-selection decisions.
Data on patent families is used in economic and statistical studies for many purposes, including the analysis of patenting strategies of applicants, the monitoring of the globalization of inventions and the comparison of the inventive performance and stock of technological knowledge of different countries. Most of these studies take family data as given, as a sort of black box, without going into the details of their underlying methodologies and patent linkages. However, different definitions of patent families may lead to different results. One of the purposes of this paper is to compare the most commonly used definitions of patent families and identify factors causing differences in family outcomes. Another objective is to shed light into the internal structure of patent families and see how it affects patent family outcomes based on different definitions. An automated characterization of the internal structures of all extended families with earliest priorities in the 1990s, as recorded in PATSTAT, found that family counts are not affected by the choice of patent family definitions in 75% of families. However, different definitions may really matter for the 25% of families with complex structures and lead to different family compositions, which might have an impact, for instance, on econometric studies using family size as a proxy of patent value.
Through theoretical analysis and empirical demonstration, this paper attempts to model the behavior of science and technology
by investigating the self-propagating behavior of their diffusion for South Korea, Malaysia and Japan. The dynamics of the
self-propagating behavior were examined using the logistic growth function within a dynamic carrying capacity, while allowing
for different effectiveness of potential influence of science and technology producers on potential adopters. Evidence suggests
that the self-propagating growth function is particularly relevant for countries with advanced science and technology, like
Japan. While self-propagating growth was also found for South Korea, the diffusion process remained fairly static for Malaysia.
For the further development and more efficient operation of the sharing economy, a fast and inexpensive peer-to-peer payment system is an essential element. The aim of this study is to outline a prototype that ensures the automation and decentralization of processes through smart contracts without blockchain technology. The model has been built based on the narrative that a community currency created through smart contracts can promote genuine practices of sharing as opposed to the profit-oriented approach that most of the currently operating sharing economy platforms have. Features of the model, such as ease of use, high-speed transactions without transaction cost are benefits that can provide a more efficient alternative to the traditional or to the cryptocurrency-based centralized sharing economy platforms.