Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 21 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Data on patent families is used in economic and statistical studies for many purposes, including the analysis of patenting strategies of applicants, the monitoring of the globalization of inventions and the comparison of the inventive performance and stock of technological knowledge of different countries. Most of these studies take family data as given, as a sort of black box, without going into the details of their underlying methodologies and patent linkages. However, different definitions of patent families may lead to different results. One of the purposes of this paper is to compare the most commonly used definitions of patent families and identify factors causing differences in family outcomes. Another objective is to shed light into the internal structure of patent families and see how it affects patent family outcomes based on different definitions. An automated characterization of the internal structures of all extended families with earliest priorities in the 1990s, as recorded in PATSTAT, found that family counts are not affected by the choice of patent family definitions in 75% of families. However, different definitions may really matter for the 25% of families with complex structures and lead to different family compositions, which might have an impact, for instance, on econometric studies using family size as a proxy of patent value.

Restricted access

Abstract

Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning algorithm that allows identifying scientific references in an automated manner. Using the obtained results, we analyze indicators based on NPRs, with a focus on the difference between NPR- and scientific non-patent references-based indicators. Differences between both indicators are significant and dependent on the considered patent system, the applicant country and the technological domain. These results signal the relevancy of delineating scientific references when using NPRs to assess the occurrence and impact of science–technology interactions.

Restricted access

This paper shows the principal features of merger control in selected transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), namely Hungary, Romania and Slovenia, by applying case study methodology. The presented findings are based on the analysis of Hungarian, Romanian and Slovenian competition law and merger rulings reached by the Competition Offices of these countries. A substantial part of the conclusions is drawn from a sample of 42 merger applications processed by the Office of Economic Competition of Hungary between 1994 and 2000. The results of empirical analysis demonstrate the considerable flexibility of merger control in the studied countries, its orientation towards the future of domestic markets and a close link with industrial policy. The paper also highlights the areas of interdependence of competition policy and transition and argues that merger control in the studied CEE countries may be regarded as currently adequate to the requirements imposed by transition.

Restricted access

The aim of this research is to examine the degree to which different categories of intellectual capital are disclosed in the annual reports of a sample of large European companies. The sample comprises 18 companies included in the STOXX® Europe TMI Software & Computer Services Index, from six countries. Keeping with the previous literature, the present study has analysed the disclosed items of intellectual capital outside the financial reports of these entities; this methodological choice assumes that disclosure outside the requirements of accounting standards shows the true commitment of managers in the creation and development of intellectual capital. Therefore, we have collected the cross-sectional raw data from the management review section of selected annual reports for one fiscal year. We have used relevant methodologies from the earlier literature for the content analysis of intellectual capital disclosures. The elements disclosed in narrative form were coded as binary variables on an index scale, and several frequencies and charts are included in the discussion section. Frequencies found are only poorly comparable with the results of previous studies.

Restricted access

Abstract

This article analyzes the relationship between private and social value of patents, comparing discrete and cumulative innovation. Indicators of the social value of patents are known to be less correlated with measures of private value in technological fields where innovation is more cumulative. We test whether this is because the link between private and social value is weaker, or because the indicators are less informative of the underlying concepts of value. Furthermore we analyze whether these differences between technological fields are really due to cumulativeness. We observe cumulative innovation by making use of databases of patents declared essential for technological standards. Using factor analysis and a set of patent quality indicators, we test the relevance of social value for predicting the private value of a patent measured by renewal and litigation. Whereas we establish a robust and significant link for discrete technologies; neither common factors nor any indicator of social value allows predicting the private value of essential, very cumulative patents. Nevertheless, this result cannot be generalized to whole technological classes identified as “complex” by the literature.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The measurement of textual patent similarities is crucial for important tasks in patent management, be it prior art analysis, infringement analysis, or patent mapping. In this paper the common theory of similarity measurement is applied to the field of patents, using solitary concepts as basic textual elements of patents. After unfolding the term ‘similarity’ in a content and formal oriented level and presenting a basic model of understanding, a segmented approach to the measurement of underlying variables, similarity coefficients, and the criteria-related profiles of their combinations is lined out. This leads to a guided way to the application of textual patent similarities, interesting both for theory and practice.

Restricted access

Abstract

For certain tasks in patent management it makes sense to apply a quantitative measure of textual similarity between patents and/or parts thereof: be it the analysis of freedom to operate, the analysis of technology convergence, or the mapping of patents for strategic purposes. In this paper we intend to outline the process of measuring textual patent similarity on the basis of elements referred to as ‘combined concepts’. We are going to use this process in various operations leading to design decisions, and shall also provide guidance regarding these decisions. By way of two applications from patent management, namely the prioritization of patents and the analysis of convergence between two technological fields, we mean to demonstrate the crucial importance of design decisions in terms of patent analysis results.

Restricted access

Abstract

The importance of domestic technology transfer from the public sector (universities and public research institutes) to industry is increasing in the era of science–driven innovation. One of the purposes of a triple helix of evolving university-government–industry relations is how to make use of universities and public research institutes for industrial development. This paper first discusses the means of domestic technology transfer and points out that spinning off companies is one ultimate way to transfer technology, after discussing the relation between a triple helix and technology transfer. Then, this paper presents a unique case of a public research institute before the end of World War II in Japan. This research institute established 63 companies, such as Ricoh and Okamoto. At the same time the institute excelled in science as well. The first two Nobel Prize Laureates of Japan were researchers of this research institute. The paper discusses the management of this institute and its group companies and enabling environment surrounding the institute and its group companies at that time. At the end, the paper draws some lessons for public research institutes and their spin-off companies today.

Restricted access

Abstract

Given that in terms of technology novel inventions are crucial factors for companies; this article contributes to the identification of inventions of high novelty in patent data. As companies are confronted with an information overflow, and having patents reviewed by experts is a time-consuming task, we introduce a new approach to the identification of inventions of high novelty: a specific form of semantic patent analysis. Subsequent to the introduction of the concept of novelty in patents, the classical method of semantic patent analysis will be adapted to support novelty measurement. By means of a case study from the automotive industry, we corroborate that semantic patent analysis is able to outperform available methods for the identification of inventions of high novelty. Accordingly, semantic patent information possesses the potential to enhance technology monitoring while reducing both costs and uncertainty in the identification of inventions of high novelty.

Restricted access

Abstract

This article examines the incentive structure underlying information transfers received by the three key players of the Triple Helix paradigm: universities, industry, and government research institutes (GRIs). For Korea and Taiwan, which are the cases under analysis here, such an empirical examination has not yet been conducted on a quantitative level. Using a unique dataset of survey responses from a maximum of 325 researchers based in Korean and Taiwanese universities, industry, and GRIs, this article shows that there are some significant differences between and within countries. Most importantly, policy interventions to promote university-industry-GRI interactions impact the degree to which specific information transfers are considered useful. In Korea, formal transfers are emphasized, while both formal and, in particular, informal transfers are emphasized in Taiwan.

Restricted access