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This paper reviews the issue of population size (scale effects) in idea-based growth models. It addresses both weak and strong scale effects and incorporates the related distinctive features of the three strata of idea-based growth models. The paper also comments on third-generation models, emphasising their fragile framework due to the limited range of R&D spillover space they can accommodate. It is argued that because of the shortcomings of the third-generation models, a precise mapping of the relationship between population size and economic growth requires further research.

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This paper presents a case-study to demonstrate the calculation methods of growth contributions using structural decompositions of input-output tables and their Hungarian applications. Although the required data are available with a considerable time-lag, results show that taking backward linkages through demand for inputs and value chain multipliers into account can significantly alter the picture on the growth effects of industries and final demand categories by the conventional approach based on quarterly GDP calculations. This can be instructive for analysts and policy- and decision-makers not only in Hungary, but also in other countries. The study was performed by using public macroeconomic and sectoral data obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office.

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Tourism-Led Growth (TLG) hypothesis results are inconclusive for Mediterranean countries in the relevant literature. This study contributes to the literature by employing the bounds test for co-integration and Granger causality tests to investigate level relationship and the direction of causality between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. Results reveal that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. On the other hand, Granger causality test results suggest that both the Tourism-Led Growth and output-driven tourism hypotheses can be inferred for Malta since there is bidirectional causation between international tourism and economic growth.

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One of the most dramatic economic transformations in modern times has been the entry of women into the labor force. The purpose of this study is to address issues related to interactions among gender differences, economic growth and education with endogenous physical and human capital accumulation. Our model is a synthesis of the Solow model (Solow 1956) and the Uzawa-Lucas two-sector growth model (Uzawa 1965; Lucas 1988) with Zhang’s approach to household behavior (Zhang 1993). It adds gender issues to the traditional models. We examine behavior of the economy by simulation. We demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and plot the motion of the dynamic system. We also examine the effects of changes on the time distributions and human capital of man and woman in the propensity to receive education, the efficiency of learning, the efficiency of education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

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Insight into the unique structure of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been obtained using a combination of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Indium containing hydrotalcites of formula Mg4In2(CO3)(OH)12·4H2O (2:1 In-LDH) through to Mg8In2(CO3)(OH)18·4H2O (4:1 In-LDH) with variation in the Mg:In ratio have been successfully synthesised. The d(003) spacing varied from 7.83 Å for the 2:1 LDH to 8.15 Å for the 3:1 indium containing LDH. Distinct mass loss steps attributed to dehydration, dehydroxylation and decarbonation are observed for the indium containing hydrotalcite. Dehydration occurs over the temperature range ambient to 205 °C. Dehydroxylation takes place in a series of steps over the 238–277 °C temperature range. Decarbonation occurs between 763 and 795 °C. The dehydroxylation and decarbonation steps depend upon the Mg:In ratio. The formation of indium containing hydrotalcites and their thermal activation provides a method for the synthesis of indium oxide-based catalysts.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Agnieszka Jabłońska–Wawrzycka, Małgorzata Zienkiewicz, Maciej Hodorowicz, Patrycja Rogala, and Barbara Barszcz

, involving the aqua ligands and the non-coordinated oxygen (O51A) of carboxylate group (C51–O51A–O51B) or oxygen atoms (O41A) of the carboxylic group (C41–O41A–O41B) in the position 3 in the pyridine ring ( Fig. 4 , details are given in Table 3 ). The

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-4141(199812)28:12<4170::AID-IMMU4170>3.0.CO;2-O 41. Gagro , A. , McCloskey , N. , Challa , A

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.79%, S:2.12%, O:42.58% found H:2.8, S:2.12% and O:41.80%. Magnetic analysis Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum data of complex viz. g ∥ , g ⊥ and g av were 2.6, 1.62 and 1.95, respectively. g ∥ > g

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Central European Geology
Authors: Ildikó Gyollai, Ákos Kereszturi, and Elias Chatzitheodoridis

.87 O 39.29 63.52 O 39.38 61.73 O 41.36 62

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