The ternary compounds 14PbO·P2O5·2PbCl2 (R) and 29PbO·3P2O5·6PbCl2 (S), which are formed in the ternary system PbO-P2O2-PbCl2, were examined by dilatometry. Numerous, previously undescribed thermal and dilatational effects were observed to occur in these compounds under the influence of temperature.
Portugal is often mentioned as one of the models of old cohesion countries. However, the development of the country was not continuous and did not bring along the catching up of all the regions. How far does the European Union’s structural support influence the development process of Portugal and how can the effects of structural support be measured in terms of the development of the country? What results and impact did the European Union’s structural policy have in Portugal in the last quarter-century? What are the lessons learnt and what could be done to make the implementation of the Funds more effective in the future? To what extent was the convergence of growth levels achieved between the Portuguese regions and the national average concerning structural support? The author tries to answer these questions amongst others, while dealing with the evaluation of the results of Structural Funds in Portugal and the convergence of the Portuguese regions.
Authors:Ewa Cieślik, Jadwiga Biegańska, and Stefania Środa-Murawska
This article presents the transformation of foreign trade in 10 post-socialist countries, current members of the EU. Special focus is given to the more significant role these countries began to play in global value chains (GVCs) as a result of liberalisation processes and integration within the EU. In addition, the article evaluates their place in global vertical specialisation. To locate each country on a global value chain and to compare them with selected countries, more complex methods of measuring the level of participation of European post-socialist countries in GVCs were employed. These methods allow the position of a country downstream or upstream in GVCs to be established. We concluded that (a) post-socialist countries differ in the levels of their participation in GVCs. Countries that have stronger links with Western European countries, especially with Germany, are more integrated; (b) a large share of post-socialist countries’ exports pass through Western European GVCs; (c) most exporters in Central and Eastern Europe are positioned in downstream segments of production rather than upstream markets.
The empirical studies in the area of Open Innovation (OI) reveal that there is a significant bias in favour of countries on the technological frontier. The present study aims to bridge this gap by examining firms in Portugal, a country at an intermediate stage of technological development. Based on 70 innovative firms, we found that whatever perspective of the OI model is considered, firms tend, on average, to share a relatively closed innovation model when compared with firms located in countries where technological development is advanced. About a quarter of the surveyed firms implemented the OI model in their innovation strategy/business, this being much more widely disseminated regarding the absorption of external knowledge/technology, with almost 40% of firms surveyed acknowledging its use in comparison with the perspective of transfer of knowledge/technology to other organisations — less than 10% provide their “surplus technology” to other organisations. This result may indicate a lack of awareness of the economic potential of making internally created technologies available to third parties, albeit this potential might also depend on other circumstances such as technology architecture (the system and interdependence of technologies).
In this paper, the convergence in R&D expenditure across 21 European Union countries is examined by applying fractional integration analysis. Data are annual and cover the period 1990–2010. Results show that there is certain degree of convergence in R&D intensity. However, the speed of the convergence varies across countries. For most of the countries, the speed of convergence is higher in the R&D expenditures of governments than in the R&D expenditures of higher education institutions and businesses. Differences in the speed of convergence could be explained by differences in industry structures, in cultural trajectories, in macroeconomic conditions, or in internationalisation. The more dissimilar countries are in terms of these factors the more likely they are to have divergent paths. Furthermore, differences in R&D convergence by institutional sectors could be due to the different goals of each sector and to the relative weight of each sector in the entire economy.
Spatial autocorrelation analysis is an important method that can reveal the structure and patterns of economic spatial variables. It can be used to identify not only global spatial patterns in the country, but also characteristic locations at micro levels. In this research, we used spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran’s I and Local Getis—Ord Gi statistics to identify the intensity of the spatial clustering of municipalities in Serbia by the level of average monthly net earnings from 2001 to 2010. We identified and mapped local clusters (hot and cold spots) by the level of average monthly net earnings for the same period. The results show that overall spatial segregation between municipalities with high and low average monthly net earnings was predominantly increasing during the investigated period. Local statistics illustrated that overall spatial segregation followed a broad north—south divide, with a concentration of municipalities with high net earnings in the north of Serbia, and low net earnings in the south. Closer inspection showed that at the beginning of the study period, there were three statistically significant hot spots in the north. As time passed, only one highly clustered hot spot remained — the Belgrade region. One cold spot retained a relatively stable position in the country’s southeast. This research shows that spatial changes of net earnings can be successfully studied with respect to statistically significant global and local spatial associations in the variables using spatial autocorrelation analysis.
It is known that the simple Markov chain model overestimates the long run horizon mobility of the income distribution process. Dissolving the homogeneity assumption of the Markov model may lead to better forecasts. One generalisation of the Markov model, the Mover-Stayer model assumes heterogenous population: some units are moving according to a common Markov chain, but there are some (unknown) units that are not moving at all. They are called stayers.Based on the Frydman (1984) methodology if we compute both the Markov and Mover-Stayer models for Hungarian micro-regions income data, we find that the Mover-Stayer model fits better the regional relative income data than the simple Markov model. Using likelihood ratio test statistics we show that the difference is highly significant. The method is also applied for spatially conditioned data. The results show that the high persistence of relative income positions is a remarkable feature of the Hungarian economy in 1990–2003 both on a country-wide scale and local level. We also demonstrate that forecasts made on a less reliant model might lead to very ambiguous results.
Tourism-Led Growth (TLG) hypothesis results are inconclusive for Mediterranean countries in the relevant literature. This study contributes to the literature by employing the bounds test for co-integration and Granger causality tests to investigate level relationship and the direction of causality between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. Results reveal that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. On the other hand, Granger causality test results suggest that both the Tourism-Led Growth and output-driven tourism hypotheses can be inferred for Malta since there is bidirectional causation between international tourism and economic growth.
Authors:Ivan Vujačić, Jelica Petrović-Vujačić, Svetozar Tanasković, and Marko Miljković
After the devastation of the Second World War, the federal units of the former Yugoslavia were on their way to catching up with the Western Europe, with different degrees of success. In fact, Yugoslavia was considered a success story among the socialist economies due to its specific self-management system. Nevertheless, among the Federal units that later became independent states, regional differences in development level increased, in spite of the proclaimed policy to narrow them. Enough time has passed since the wars of the breakup and the economic transition to check if this divergence is continuing under a capitalist market system, now that all the countries are on the path to the European Union (EU) accession. The paper tests the convergence hypothesis among the states of the former Yugoslavia in terms of Human Development Index (HDI), as a more complex indicator of country development than GDP per capita. The results of two different approaches to test for the presence of β (beta) and σ (sigma) convergence suggest that the gap between the states of former Yugoslavia is closing, albeit at a slow rate. Given that convergence is slow, the active EU policies aimed at hastening the accession of the currently non-member states of the former Yugoslavia would accelerate the process.
We investigate the relationship between economic growth and real exchange rate (RER) misalignments within the European Union (EU) during the period of 1995–2016. In addition to the relative price level of GDP, we quantify an alternative indicator for the RER: the internal relative price of services to goods. We interpret RER misalignments as deviations from the levels consistent with the levels of economic development among the EU countries. Using pooled OLS and dynamic panel techniques, we find that within the EU over- (under-) valuations are associated with lower (higher) growth. This is mainly due to developments in the countries operating under the fixed exchange rate regimes. Our results indicate that the level of development does not influence the strength of the growth-misalignment relationship within the EU. Regarding the price level of GDP, we find that the positive relationship between undervaluation and growth diminishes with the degree of undervaluation. We find that overvaluation has a statistically significant negative effect on export market shares and private investments, indicating that both the competitiveness and the investment channels play a role in the relationship between growth and RER misalignments. As an extension, we show that the effects of “wage misalignments” from levels consistent with productivity are also negatively related to economic growth. The policy implications of the analysis point to the importance of a growth strategy avoiding overvaluation on the one hand, and to the futility of aiming at excessive undervaluation, on the other.