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This paper examines the possibility of a correlation between orthodoxy and brick burials, also investigating burials with brick and stone. Among the peoples inhabiting the Carpathian Basin the custom of brick burials had no direct antecedent. Based on our research brick burials seem to have been taken over from the Balkan, while concerning burials with stone the former Upper Hungary played an important role as well. The tradition can be traced back to an antique custom, persistent in orthodoxy, with the purpose of preserving the ephemeral and perishable body for eternity and assuring the deceased’s peace.

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During most of the Soviet era, it was considered ideologically suspect — and anti-nationalistic — to perform, compose, or study any kind of sacred music. How some composers who identified with Orthodoxy conveyed their spirituality through their art in spite of official prohibitions illuminates an interesting way of expressing Russian identity through heritage revival. This paper explores a unique compositional technique that bridged liturgical experience and the concert stage by means of a rather calculated but inspired methodology that expanded the znamenny chant structure into a 12-tone row. Starting with his Polyphonic Concerto (1969), composer Yuriy Butsko (1938–2015) successfully adapted the old chant to modern times while preserving its religious meaning. “Butsko’s row” indigenized a transnational compositional technique (dodecaphony) by kneading principles of Russian chant scale into its core. In the midst of the Cold War a Russian composer reached out to the world by globalizing an inherent pre-Soviet musical element. At the time (though seemingly without any explicit intent on the part of the composer) this could be considered a non-conformist gesture against the regime. Paradoxically, however, Butsko’s system marked his desire to validate his music as a legitimate means of the Russian national representation. Butsko’s utilization of the znamenny chant could have supported the state, had the state patronized the Orthodoxy.

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Cult or spirit?

Integration strategies and history of memory in Jewish groups in Hungary at the turn of the 19th–20th century

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: András Zima

[Fatal rupture. The breakaway of Orthodoxy from the Jewish religious communities in Hungary and Germany]. Budapest, Múlt és Jövő. Katz J. Végzetes szakadás. Az orthodoxia kiválása a zsidó hitközségekből Magyarországon

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The veneration of icons in the Orthodox church is an integral part of the Russian liturgical tradition. It is possible to study icons only as a sacred work of art intended for prayer. Therefore this article's goal is to show the forms of veneration of icons in the temple as its major environment. In the tradition of Russian Orthodox piety icon worship is expressed in various forms. The major form of veneration of icons is expressed in believers standing in front of them in prayer. In the services of the Russian Orthodox Church it is customary to worship icons with prayer and Akathist services. One of the Holy Fathers said: “Do, do the external, for the external belongs to us, and the internal to God. And for the external the Lord shall give us also the internal” (Pestov 2000: 542). Such external forms of the veneration of icons are expressed in bowing before them, kissing, censing, lighting candles and decorating holy images. All these signs of veneration precede the prayer and create a special mood.

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A loser of the First World War, interwar Bulgaria is characterized by developments in its spiritual and religious life that reflect the idea, and the feeling, of a “national catastrophe”. One of the expressions of this general mood is the multiplication of religious organizations run by lay people in which religious activism is infused with ideas of national grandeur. Born in the early 1920s, The Good Samaritan was an ultra-Orthodox organization founded by former military officers with the help of an Orthodox priest. Within a few years it entered in conflict with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, which treated it as a sect. It was, however, successful in rallying citizens and peasants alike under millenarian slogans. The association relied on visionaries and popular prophets to promote its ideas of Bulgaria as a New Israel. The paper focuses on two of the most outspoken prophets acting on behalf of The Good Samaritan , both women. By examining their visionary techniques and pronouncements, the aim is to show how national ideology and political climate influence the “work” of visionaries and give them credence.

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The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.

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Unchangingness In Change

The changed self-image of Budapest Jewish groups in the interwar years as a result of the changed borders in the Carpathian Basin

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Norbert Glässer and András Zima

In Central Europe the social and cultural processes within various groups of Jews before the First World War were determined by the imperial frames. While the nation states that came into being set the general frames, the attitude of the Jews towards modernity as a process, their religious and cultural strategies extended beyond these frames. The new borders drawn after the First World War fundamentally changed the social and cultural environment in which the earlier Jewish strategies had emerged and functioned; and shaped their attitude towards Hungarian symbolic politics. After 1920 there was also a change in the proportions of the different Jewish trends in Hungary. The group strategies of the denominations and movements represented in the Hungarian-language Jewish press in Hungary interpreted Hungarian symbolic politics after the Trianon peace dictate in different ways and incorporated these interpretations in their discourses. The borders appeared not only in their physical state as an unbridgeable reality that had to be dealt with but also created new borders in the organisation of groups and society.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Grzegorz Konat, Wanda Karpińska-Mizielińska, Kazimierz Kloc, Tadeusz Smuga, and Bartosz Witkowski

The paper presents the results of a research conducted in 2014–2016, aimed at characterising the milieu of the Polish academic economists with respect to their self-identification with modern schools of economic thought. Using econometric modelling, the social variables determining the theoretical choices made by the economists themselves were identified. We found that the largest group of the Polish academic economists identifies themselves with new institutional economics. Nearly half of the respondents declared their association with heterodox approaches, while only about a quarter of the respondents showed association with economic orthodoxy. Such a structure of self-identification of the Polish academic economists with schools of economic thought distinguishes it from the ones in other European countries, such as Italy and Germany.

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When seen or presumed in the actions of gods rather than of men, phthonos (‘spite’) has traditionally been regarded as a disturbingly “primitive” form of behaviour, punishing those who have done nothing to deserve punishment (but are simply too successful or prosperous for the deity’s liking), and chiefly manifesting itself in such authors as Herodotus and such genres as Attic tragedy. After the fifth century BC, orthodoxy holds, this gives way to a more enlightened world-view; now spite is confined to humans, and the gods treat humankind more justly. But K. J. Dover once voiced his suspicion that belief in divine phthonos lingered on, and here I try to show that he was right. In the fourth century, divine phthonos itself is still spoken of (by such disparate authors as Aristophanes and Xenophon); and in later writers, from Polybius to Pausanias, the idea of tyche (‘chance’) takes on both the vocabulary and. more important, the substantive role of supernatural phthonos .

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Háttér és célkitűzések

A wulffi elméletet alapul vevő Kritika Utáni Vallásosság skála két dimenzión alapuló kiértékelése (Martos, Kézdy, Robu, Urbán és Horváth-Szabó, 2009) lehetőséget nyújt egy újfajta vallásosságtipológia létrehozására. Kutatásunk célja az volt, hogy a vallás iránti attitűdöket személyorientált statisztikai eljárások segítségével vizsgáljuk annak érdekében, hogy a valláshoz való személyes viszonyulás differenciáltabb típusait tárjuk fel.


Hierarchikus agglomeratív és k-központú klaszteranalízist végeztünk el egy 1417 fős és egy 506 fős mintán, majd megbízhatóságát centroid módszerrel és egy újfajta validálási eljárással ellenőriztük (vö. Vargha, Bergman és Takács, 2016), majd a létrejövő klaszterstruktúrákat vizsgáltuk az értelemmegélés és értelemkeresés, valamint az aspirációk tükrében.


Az eredmények szerint azonosítható egy megbízható 7 klaszteres struktúra. A feltárt klasz- terek között megjelent a szakirodalom által sugallt klasszikus négy attitűddel közel azonos mintázat (Ortodoxia, Külső Kritika, Relativizmus, Második Naivitás). Három további típus kimutatása hozzájárult ahhoz, hogy a vallás iránti egyéni viszonyulásokról árnyaltabb képet tárjunk fel.


Az Ortodoxia és a Második Naivitás csoportba tartozók kedvezőbb, a Külső Kritika csoportjába tartozók kedvezőtlenebb pontszámot érnek el az értelemmegélés és -keresés, illetve az aspirációk tekintetében. A transzcendencia befogadása az értelmesség megélésének pozitív előrejezője.

Based on Wulffs theorem the two dimensional evaluation of the Post Critical belief scale presents a valuable opportunity to create a typology of religious attitudes. The main goal of the research was to explore different types of attitudes towards religiosity in a person-oriented framework. We performed a hierarchical agglomerative and k-means cluster analysis in two distinct samples (one with 1417 and one with 506 participants), and verified the results with centroid-method and a new validation process (Vargha, Bergman & Takács, 2016). Furthermore we examined the relationship between the given cluster structures and the presence of/ searching for meaning in life, and the intrinsic/extrinsic aspirations. The results show that there is a reliable underlying 7-cluster solution in both samples. The explored cluster structures include the classic pattern of religious attitudes (Orthodoxy, External Critique, Relativism, Second Naivité), moreover it expands the model with three additional types. The members of the Orthodoxy and Second Naivité clusters had higher scores, while the External Critique group had lower scores in the given external variables. The inclusion of transcendence is in a positive relationship with presence of meaning in life.

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